Potential Long-Term Outcomes in Adults with Clinical Disease

Disease or Syndrome

Acute Syndrome(s) in Adults

Disease(s), Syndrome(s), or Clinical Feature

Frequency of Occurrence of Outcomesa

Delay Between Acute Infection and Onset of Outcomesb



Visual loss

Common (if untreated)

Yes (years to decades)





Yes (years to decades)


(Strongyloides stercoralis)

Diarrhea, intestinal irregularities, gluteal or perineal pruritus and rash, eosinophilia

Hyperinfection syndrome, generalized strongyloidiasis

Common (in immunosuppressed patients on steroids)

Yes (months to decades)






Cysticercosis (Taenia solium larvae [cysticerci])

Cerebral, ocular, or subcutaneous cysts usually without eosinophilia; involvement of central nervous system may present as seizures, increased intracranial pressure, altered mental status, eosinophilic meningitis, focal neurologic deficits, spinal-cord mass, or encephalitis

Chronic seizure disorder


Yes (years)

Recurrence of acute symptoms

Very rare

Yes (months to years)

Echinococcosis (Echinococcus multilocularis)

Usually: asymptomatic

Rarely: abdominal pain with or without apalpable mass in right upper quadrant, fever, pruritus, urticaria, eosinophilia, anaphylactic shock, cough, hemoptysis, chest pain

Hepatic and metastatic cysts


Yes (years to decades)







(Schistosoma haematobium)

Often asymptomatic

Bladder inflammation, urinary obstruction, scarring, eosinophilia

Recurrent urinary tract infection

Common (if untreated)

Yes (years)

Cerebral mass, generalized encephalopathy, or focal epilepsy

Very rare

Yes (weeks to years)

Transverse myelitis

Very rare

Yes (weeks to years)

Bladder cancer (squamous

Very rare

Yes (decades)

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement