Limited or Suggestive Evidence of No Association

 

31

   

 References

 

31

3

 

Infectious Diseases Endemic to Southwest and South-Central Asia That Have Long-Term Adverse Health Outcomes

 

35

   

 References

 

60

4

 

Infectious Diseases Diagnosed in US Troops Who Served in the Persian Gulf War, Operation Enduring Freedom, or Operation Iraqi Freedom

 

61

   

 Diarrheal Disease

 

62

   

 Enteric Infections in the Gulf War

 

62

   

 Gastroenteritis in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom

 

69

   

 Respiratory Disease

 

74

   

 Mild Acute Respiratory Disease in the Gulf War

 

74

   

 Severe Acute Respiratory Disease in the Gulf War

 

76

   

 Respiratory Disease in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom

 

76

   

 Insect-Borne Diseases

 

78

   

 Leishmaniasis

 

78

   

 Malaria

 

82

   

 West Nile Fever

 

84

   

 Brucellosis

 

84

   

 Chicken Pox (Varicella)

 

85

   

 Meningococcal Disease

 

85

   

 Nosocomial Infections

 

85

   

 Gulf War

 

85

   

 Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom

 

86

   

 Q Fever

 

88

   

 Q Fever Contracted During the Gulf War

 

89

   

 Q Fever Contracted During Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom

 

89

   

 Viral Hepatitis

 

90

   

 Tuberculosis

 

90

   

 Department of Defense Medical Databases

 

91

   

 Department of Defense Policy Regarding Predeployment and Postdeployment Serum Collection

 

93

   

 References

 

94

5

 

Levels of Association Between Select Diseases and Long-Term Adverse Health Outcomes

 

101

   

 Diarrheal Diseases: Campylobacter, Non-typhoid Salmonella, and Shigella Infections

 

103

   

 Campylobacter Infection

 

103

   

 Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infection

 

108

   

 Shigella Infection

 

110



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement