FIGURE 2-14 Trends in female-male ratio of publication rate.

TABLE 2-7 Estimated Female-to-Male Ratio of Publication

Model Description

1969

1973

1988

1993

(0): Sex

0.580***

0.632***

0.695**

0.817

(1): (0) + Field + Time for PhD + Experience

0.630***

0.663***

0.800

0.789*

(2): (1) + Institution + Rank +Teaching + Funding + RA

0.952

0.936

0.775

0.931

(3): (2) + Family/Marital Status

0.997

0.971

0.801

0.944

*p<.05 **p<.01 ***p<.001 (two-tailed test), for the hypothesis that there is no mean difference between males and females.

they have children. For example, we show that, relative to their male counterparts, married women with children are less likely to pursue careers in science and engineering after the completion of science/engineering education4 less likely to be in the labor force or employed, less likely to be promoted,5 and less likely to be geographically mobile.6 Although some of the gender differences are attributable to the advantages that marriage and parenthood bestow upon men, they clearly suggest that being married and having children create career barriers that are unique to women—as opposed to men—scientists.

4

Xie and Shauman (2003). Ibid, Chapters 5 and 6.

5

Xie and Shauman (2003). Ibid, Chapter 7.

6

Xie and Shauman (2003). Ibid, Chapter 8.



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