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References

Abrams SA, Griffin IJ, Hawthorne KM, Chen Z, Gunn SK, Wilde M, Darlington G, Shypailo RJ, Ellis KJ. 2005. Vitamin D receptor Fok1 polymorphisms affect calcium absorption, kinetics, and bone mineralization rates during puberty. J Bone Miner Res 20(6): 945–953.

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Ajani UA, Ford ES, Mokdad AH. 2004. Dietary fiber and C-reactive protein: findings from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. J Nutr 134(5):1181–1185.

Armas, LAG, Hollis BW, Hearney, RP. 2004. Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:5387–5391.

Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Hernan MA, Giovannucci EL, Kawachi I, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. 1998. Intake of potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber, and risk of stroke among US men. Circulation 98(12):1198–1204.

Ashfield-Watt PA, Pullin CH, Whiting JM, Clark ZE, Moat SJ, Newcombe RG, Burr ML, Lewis MJ, Powers HJ, McDowell IF. 2002. Methylenetratrahydrofolate reductase 677C→T genotype modulates homocysteine responses to a folate-rich diet or a low-dose folic acid supplement: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 76(1):180–186.



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Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis Workshop Summary References Abrams SA, Griffin IJ, Hawthorne KM, Chen Z, Gunn SK, Wilde M, Darlington G, Shypailo RJ, Ellis KJ. 2005. Vitamin D receptor Fok1 polymorphisms affect calcium absorption, kinetics, and bone mineralization rates during puberty. J Bone Miner Res 20(6): 945–953. Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. 2001. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss: AREDS report no. 8. Arch Ophthalmol 119(10):1417–1436. Ajani UA, Ford ES, Mokdad AH. 2004. Dietary fiber and C-reactive protein: findings from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. J Nutr 134(5):1181–1185. Armas, LAG, Hollis BW, Hearney, RP. 2004. Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:5387–5391. Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Hernan MA, Giovannucci EL, Kawachi I, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. 1998. Intake of potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber, and risk of stroke among US men. Circulation 98(12):1198–1204. Ashfield-Watt PA, Pullin CH, Whiting JM, Clark ZE, Moat SJ, Newcombe RG, Burr ML, Lewis MJ, Powers HJ, McDowell IF. 2002. Methylenetratrahydrofolate reductase 677C→T genotype modulates homocysteine responses to a folate-rich diet or a low-dose folic acid supplement: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 76(1):180–186.

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Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis Workshop Summary Cooney CA, Dave AA, Wolff GL. 2002. Maternal methyl supplements in mice affect epigenetic variation and DNA methylation of offspring. J Nutr 132:2392S–2400S. Corella D, Qi L, Soreli JV, Godoy D, Portoles O, Coltell O, Greenberg AS, Ordovas JM. 2005. Obese subjects carrying the 11482G>A polymorphism at the perilipin locus are resistant to weight loss after dietary energy restriction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90(9):5121– 5126. Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel. 2005. Final report of the safety assessment of niacinamide and niacin. Int J Toxicol 24(suppl 5):1–31. Cummings JH. 1993. The effect of dietary fiber on fecal weight and composition. In: Spiller GA, ed. CRC Handbook of Dietary Fiber in Human Nutrition, 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE. 1997. Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med 337(10):670–676. da Costa KA, Kozyreva OG, Song J, Galanko JA, Fischer LM, Zeisel SH. 2006a. Common genetic polymorphisms affect the human requirement for the nutrient choline. FASEB J 20:1336–1344. da Costa KA, Niculescu MD, Craciunescu CN, Fischer LM, Zeisel SH. 2006b. Choline deficiency increases lymphocyte apoptosis and DNA damage in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 84(1):88–94. de Romana DL, Lonnerdal B, Brown KH. 2003. Absorption of zinc from wheat products fortified with iron and either zinc sulfate or zinc oxide. Am J Clin Nutr 78:279–283. Devaney B, Ziegler P, Pac S, Karwe V, Barr SI. 2004. Nutrient intakes of infants and toddlers. J Am Diet Assoc 104(1 Suppl 1):s14–21. Devirian TA, Volpe SL. 2003. The physiological effects of dietary boron. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 43:219–231. DHHS/USDA (Department of Health and Human Services/U.S. Department of Agriculture). 2004. Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005 to the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture. [Online]. Available: http://www.healthierus.gov/dietary guidelines [accessed September 15, 2006]. DHHS/USDA. 2005. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. 6th ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. GPO No 001-000-04719-1.

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Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis Workshop Summary Dolinoy DC, Weidman JR, Waterland RA, Jirtle RL. 2006. Maternal genistein alters coat color and protects Avy mouse offspring from obesity by modifying the fetal epigenome. Environ Health Perspect 114(4):567–572. Domellof M, Lonnerdal B, Abrams SA, Hernell O. 2002. Iron absorption in breast-fed infants: Effects of age, iron status, iron supplements, and complementary foods. Am J Clin Nutr 76(1):198–204. Domellof M, Lonnerdal B, Dewey KG, Cohen RJ, Hernell O. 2004 Iron, zinc, and copper concentrations in breast milk are independent of maternal mineral status. Am J Clin Nutr 79(1):111–5. Erratum in: Am J Clin Nutr 2004 80(6):1669. Duffield-Lillico AJ, Reid ME, Turnbull BW, Combs GF Jr, Slate EH, Fischbach LA, Marshall JR, Clark LC. 2002. Baseline characteristics and the effect of selenium supplementation on cancer incidence in a randomized clinical trial: A summary report of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11(7):630–639. FAO/WHO/UNU (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization/United Nations Association). 1985. Energy and Protein Requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNA Expert Consultation. Technical Report Series. No. 724. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization), The International Programme on Chemical Safety. 2005. A Model for Establishing Upper Levels of Intake for Nutrients and Related Substances: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Technical Workshop on Nutrient Risk Assessment.[Online]. Available: http://www.who.int/ipcs/methods/nra/en/index.html [accessed September 15, 2006]. Feskanich D, Singh V, Willett WC, Colditz GA. 2002. Vitamin A intake and hip fractures among postmenopausal women. JAMA 287(1): 47–54. Fine KD, Schiller LR. 1999. GAG technical review on the evaluation and management of chronic diarrhea. Gastroenterology 116:1464–1486. Garza C, Scrimshaw NS, Young VR. 1977. Human protein requirements: A long-term metabolic nitrogen balance study in young men to evaluate the 1973 FAO/WHO safe level of egg protein intake. Br J Nutr 37(3):403–420. Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Rimm EB, Hollis BW, Fuchs CS, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. 2006. Prospective study of predictors of vitamin D

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Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis Workshop Summary status and cancer incidence and mortality in men. J Natl Cancer Inst 98:451–459. Gori AM, Sofi F, Corsi AM, Gazzini A, Sestini I, Lauretani F, Bandinelli S, Gensini GF, Ferrucci L, Abbate R. 2006. Predictors of vitamin B6 and folate concentrations in older persons: The InCHIANTI study. Clin Chem 52(7):1318–1324. Goulding A, Cannan R, Williams SM, Gold EJ, Taylor RW, Lewis-Barned NJ. 1998. Bone mineral density in girls with forearm fractures. J Bone Miner Res 13:143–148. Grant AM, Avenell A, Campbell MK, McDonald AM, MacLennan GS, McPherson GC, Anderson FH, Cooper C, Francis RM, Donaldson C, Gillespie WJ, Robinson CM, Torgerson DJ, Wallace WA, RECORD Trial Group. 2005. Oral vitamin D3 and calcium for secondary prevention of low-trauma fractures in elderly people (Randomised Evaluation of Calcium Or vitamin D—RECORD): A randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 365(9471):1621–1680. Guenther BD, Sheppard CA, Tran P, Rozen R, Matthews RG, Ludwig ML. 1999. The structure and properties of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase from Escherichia coli suggest how folate ameliorates human hyperhomocysetinemoa. Nat Struct Biol 6(4):359–365. Guinotte CL, Burns MG, Axume JA, Hata H, Urrutia TF, Alamilla A, McCabe D, Singgih A, Cogger EA, Caudill MA. 2003. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductate 677C→T variant modulates folate status response to controlled folate intakes in young women. J Nutr 133:1272–1280. Haddad JG, Chyu K. 1971. Competitive protein-binding radioassay for 25 hydroxychol-calciferol. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 33:992–995. Hadley KB, Johnson LK, Hunt JR. 2006. Absorption by healthy women is not associated with either serum or urinary prohepcidin. Am J Clin Nutr 84:150–155. Hambidge KM, Krebs NF, Westcott JE, Miller LV. 2006. Changes in zinc absorption during development. J Pediatr 149(suppl 3):64–68. Haskell MJ, Jamil KM, Hassan F, Peerson JM, Hossain MI, Fuchs GJ, Brown KH. 2004. Daily consumption of Indian spinach (Basella alba) or sweet potatoes has a positive effect on total-body vitamin A stores in Bangladeshi men. Am J Clin Nutr 80(3):705–714. He FJ, Markandu ND, Coltart R, Barron J, MacGregor GA. 2005. Effect of short-term supplementation of potassium chloride and potassium citrate on blood pressure in hypertensives. Hypertension 45(4): 571–574.

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Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis Workshop Summary Heaney, RP, Davies KM, Chen TC, Holick MF, Barger-Lux MJ. 2003. Human serum 25–hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. Am J Clin Nutr 77:204–210. Health Canada (Health Canada, Health Products and Food Branch, Office of Nutrition Policy and Promotion). 2006. Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2, Nutrition (2004): A Guide to Accessing and Interpreting the Data. Ottawa, Ontario: Health Canada. [Online]. Available: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/surveill/ nutrition/commun/index_e.html (accessed August 20, 2006). Herman S, Griffin IJ, Suwarti S, Ernawati F, Permaesih D, Pambudi D, Abrams SA. 2002. Cofortification of iron-fortified flour with zinc sulfate, but not zinc oxide, decreases iron absorption in Indonesian children. Am J Clin Nutr 76:813–817. Hollis, BW, Wagner CL. 2004. Vitamin D requirements during lactation: High-dose maternal supplementation as therapy to prevent hypovitaminosis D for both the mother and the nursing infant. Am J Clin Nutr 80:1752S–1758S. Hoppe M, Hulthen L, Hallberg L. 2003. Serum iron concentration as a tool to measure relative iron absorption from elemental iron powders in man. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 63:489–496. Hurrell R, Bothwell T, Cook JD, Dary O, Davidsson L, Fairweather-Tait S, Hallberg L, Lynch S, Rosado J, Walter T, Whittaker P. 2002. The usefulness of elemental iron for cereal flour fortification: A SUSTAIN Task Force report. Sharing United States Technology to Aid in the Improvement of Nutrition. Nutr Rev 60:391–406. Hustad S, Ueland PM, Vollset SE, Zhang Y, Bjorke-Monsen AL, Schneede J. 2000. Riboflavin as a determinant of plasma total homocysteine: Effect of modification by the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism. Clin Chem 46(8 Pt 1):1065– 1071. International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group. 2004. Assessment of the risk of zinc deficiency in populations and options for its control. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 25 (1, Supp 2):S99–S129. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1994. How Should the Recommended Dietary Allowances Be Revised? Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 1997. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

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Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis Workshop Summary IOM. 1998a. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM 1998b. A Risk Assessment Model for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2000a. Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2000b. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. IOM. 2002/2005. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. IOM. 2003a. Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Planning. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. IOM. 2003b. Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. IOM. 2005. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. IOM. 2006a. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. IOM. 2006b. Mineral Requirements for Military Personnel; Levels Needed for Cognitive and Physical Performance During Garrison Training. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. IOM. 2006c. WIC Food Packages: Time for a Change. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, Wallace RB, Robbins J, Lewis CE, Bassford T, Beresford SA, Black HR, Blanchette P, Bonds DE, Brunner RL, Brzyski RG, Caan B, Cauley JA, Chlebowski RT, Cummings SR, Granek I, Hays J, Heiss G, Hendrix SL, Howard BV, Hsia J, Hubbell FA, Johnson KC, Judd H, Kotchen JM, Kuller LH, Langer RD, Lasser NL, Limacher MC, Ludlam S, Manson JE, Margolis KL, McGowan J, Ockene JK, O'Sullivan MJ, Phillips L, Prentice RL, Sarto GE, Stefanick ML, Van Horn L, Wactawski-Wende J, Whitlock E, Anderson GL, Assaf AR, Barad D; Women's

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Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis Workshop Summary Lembo A, Camilleri M. 2003. Chronic constipation. N Engl J Med 349:1360–1368. Lips P Graafmans WC, Ooms ME, Bezemer PD, Bouter LM. 1996. Vitamin D supplementation and fracture incidence in elderly persons. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ann Intern Med 124:400–406. Liu, PT, Stenger S, Li H, Wenzel L, Tan BH, Krutzik S, Ochoa MT, Schauber J, Wu K, Meinken C, Kamen DL, Wagner M, Bals R, Steinmeyer A, Zugel U, Modlin RL. 2006. Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response. Science 311:1770–1773. Liuzzi JP, Cousins RJ. 2004. Mammalian zinc transporters. Annu Rev Nutr 24:151–172. Lopez de Romana D, Salazar M, Hambidge KM, Penny ME, Peerson JM, Krebs NF, Brown KH. 2005. Longitudinal measurements of zinc absorption in Peruvian children consuming wheat products fortified with iron only or iron and 1 of 2 amounts of zinc. Am J Clin Nutr 81:637–647. Lopez-Ridaura R, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Liu S, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE. 2004. Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women. Diabetes Care 27(1):134–140. Luft FC, Rankin LI, Bloch R, Weyman AE, Willis LR, Murray RH, Grim CE, Weinberger MH. 1979. Cardiovascular and humoral responses to extremes of sodium intake in normal black and white men. Circulation 60:697–706. Ma Y, Griffith JA, Chasan-Taber L, Olendzki BC, Jackson E, Stanek EJ 3rd, Li W, Pagoto SL, Hafner AR, Ockene IS. 2006. Association between dietary fiber and serum C-reactive protein. Am J Clin Nutr 83(4):760–766. Matkovic V, Goel PK, Badenhop-Stevens NE, Landoll JD, Li B, Ilich JZ, Skugor M, Nagode LA, Mobley SL, Ha EJ, Hangartner TN, Clairmont A. 2005. Calcium supplementation and bone mineral density in females from childhood to young adulthood: A randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 81:175–188. Melse-Boonstra A, Holm PI, Ueland PM, Olthof M, Clarke R, Verhoef P. 2005. Betaine concentration as a determinant of fasting total homocysteine concentrations and the effect of folic acid supplementation on betaine concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 81:1378-1382.

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