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Epidemiological research that evaluates the role of habitual (lifetime) dietary magnesium intake in the development of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes is urgently needed in order to optimize magnesium recommendations.

Major Knowledge



Research is needed to assess methods for determining individual risk of chronic disease risk of chronic disease outcomes so that associations with nutrient status can be better understood.

Major Knowledge



The potential relationship between allelic variation in the vitamin D receptor (VDR), bone vitamin D receptor (VDR), bone mineral density, and osteoporosis within and between population groups requires further elucidation in order to determine if VDR polymorphisms are a variable influencing life-long calcium intake needs.

Major Knowledge



For children ages 1 through 18 years, research is needed to evaluate the dietary intakes of the dietary intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D required to optimize bone mineral accretion, especially in relation to changing age ranges for the onset of puberty and growth spurts.

Major Knowledge



With respect to dietary intake needs for vitamin D, information is required by geographical and racial variables that reflect the mix of the Canadian and United States populations and the influence of sunscreens on intake requirements.

Major Knowledge



Calcium balance studies should be augmented with stable or radioactive tracers of calcium to estimate aspects of calcium homeostasis with changes in defined intakes (i.e., fractional absorption, bone calcium balance, and bone turnover rates).

Research Method



Adaptations to changes in the amount of dietary calcium should be followed within the same populations for short-term (2 months) to long-term (1 to 2 years) studies. Different experimental approaches will be needed to define the temporal response to changes in dietary calcium. Short-term studies may be conducted in a metabolic research unit whereas the longer-term studies will need to be carried out in confined populations (i. e., convalescent home patients) fed prescribed diets; human study cohorts followed carefully for years with frequent, thorough estimates of dietary intakes; or metabolic studies of individuals fed their usual diets who typically consume a wide range of calcium intakes. All studies should include a comprehensive evaluation of biochemical measures of bone mineral content or metabolism. Bone mineral content and density should be evaluated in long-term studies. Good surro

Knowledge Gaps

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