65. Ibid., p. 112; and U.S. Department of Energy, Monthly Energy Review, March 1979, op. cit., p. 95, for 1978 data,

  

66. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C., unpublished data, 1978.

  

67. Thomas Petzinger, Jr., “Captive Customers? Utility-Owned Mines, Meant to Assure Fuel, Often Lift Power Cost,” The Wall Street Journal, May 10, 1979, p. 1.

  

68. Alexander Gakner, Chief, Branch of Fuel and Environmental Analysis, Federal Power Commission, in testimony, The Energy Competition Act, as cited in Office of Technology Assessment, op. cit.

  

69. U.S. Department of Energy, CoalBituminous and Lignite in 1976, op. cit., p. 4.

  

70. Charles River Associates, Coal Price Formation, prepared for Electric Power Research Institute (Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric Power Research Institute (EA-497, Project 666–1), 1977), pp. 4–40; see data for companies issuing annual reports in Office of Technology Assessment, op. cit., p. 120; and Fred Dunbar, Charles River Associates, Cambridge, Mass., personal communication, May 1, 1979.

  

71. U.S. Department of Energy, Coal—Bituminous and Lignite in 1976, op. cit., pp. 49–51; and U.S. General Accounting Office, U.S. Coal Development—Promises, Uncertainties (Washington, D.C.: U.S. General Accounting Office, (EMD-77–43), September 22, 1977), p. 5–5.

  

72. Office of Technology Assessment, op. cit., p. 160.

  

73. Teknekron, Inc., Projections of Utility Coal Movement Patterns: 1980–2000 (Washington, D.C.: Office of Technology Assessment, 1977).

  

74. Office of Technology Assessment, op. cit., p. 160; and National Coal Policy Project, “Summary and Synthesis,” in Where We Agree: Report of the National Coal Policy Project, sponsored by the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Georgetown University (Washington, D.C.: Automated Graphic Systems, 1978), p. 35.

  

75. See John Harte and Mohamed El-Gasseir, “Energy and Water,” Science 199:623–634; and Ecosystems Impact Resource Group, “Energy and the Fate of Ecosystems,” in National Research Council, Risks and Impacts of Alternative Energy Systems, Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems, Risk and Impact Panel (Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, in preparation), chap. 6.

  

76. An acre-ft is the amount of water that would cover an acre to a depth of 1 ft. It is equivalent to 325,829 gal. Runoff is water from precipitation that is not lost through evaporation or transpiration by plants.

  

77. G.Samuels, Assessment of Water Resources for Nuclear Energy Centers (Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL-5097 UC-80), 1976).

  

78. U.S. Department of Energy, An Assessment of National Consequences of Increased Coal Utilization, Executive Summary, vols. 1 and 2, report prepared by the staff of the six national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, and Pacific Northwest (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy (TID-29425), February 1979).



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