Technology Policy and the U.S. Department of Energy (New York: American Physical Society, 1979).


23. As indicated in the low-growth scenarios of chapter 11: I2, I3, II2, and II3. See also the maximum-solar supply scenario described in that chapter, and chapter 6.


24. See chapters 4 and 9.


25. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Reactor Safety Study: An Assessment of Accident Risks in U.S. Commercial Nuclear Power Plants (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (WASH-1400), 1975).


26. See chapter 9; and National Research Council, Risks and Impacts of Alternative Energy Systems, Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems, Risk and Impact Panel (Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, in preparation),


27. American Physical Society, “Report to the American Physical Society by the Study Group on Light-Water Reactor Safety,” Reviews of Modern Physics, 47 (Summer 1975): suppl. no. 1.


28. Risk Assessment Review Group, H.W.Lewis, Chairman, The Risk Assessment Review Group Report to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NUREG/CR/0400), September 1978).


29. Risk and Impact Panel, Ecosystem Impacts Resource Group, op. cit.


30. Risk Assessment Review Group, op. cit.


31. Ibid.


32. Risk and Impact Panel, Ecosystem Impacts Resource Group, op. cit.; J.Harte and M. El Gasseir, “Energy and Water,” Science 199 (1978):623–624; and R.F.Probstein and H. Gold, Water in Synthetic Fuel Production (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1978).


33. U.S. Department of Energy, An Assessment of National Consequences of Increased Coal Utilization, Executive Summary, 2 vols. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office (TID-29425), February 1979).


34. Risk and Impact Panel, Risks and Impacts of Alternative Energy Systems, op. cit., chap. 7.


35. See, for example, J.M.Weingart, Systems Aspects of Large-Scale Energy Conversion (Laxenberg, Austria: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (RM-77–23), May 1977).


36. More detail may be found in research inspired by the CONAES study but not conducted under the study’s direction; see, for example, H.Houthakker and Michael Kennedy, “Long-Range Energy Prospects,” Energy and Development, Autumn 1978.


37. This possibility could be offset, however, by the fact that their capital stock will be mostly new and can be designed for efficiency at present and prospective prices for energy.

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