Appendix C
Tier 1 Agent-Only Processing Evaluation Subfactor Comparative Tables



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Review of International Technologies for Destruction of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel Appendix C Tier 1 Agent-Only Processing Evaluation Subfactor Comparative Tables

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Review of International Technologies for Destruction of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel TABLE C-1 Process Maturity Subfactor Evaluations for Tier 1 Agent-Only Processing Technologies Maturity Subfactors Tier 1 International Agent-Only Processing Technologies Russian Two-Stage Neutralization/ Bitumenization Incineration U.S.: RRS, SCANS, and Neutralization and Hydrolysis Is the technology in use for any type of material, even one not related to CWM in the U.S.? The neutralization/bitumenization technology has not been used in the U.S. Incineration has been used and is being used extensively for both agent and secondary waste in the U.S. Due to access issues, however, incineration may not be the best choice for recovered munitions. RRS and SCANS are used routinely in the U.S. Neutralization and hydrolysis have been used widely in the U.S. Is the technology in use for any type of material, even non-CWM related internationally? The technology is still in the developmental stage and has not been used internationally. Need to determine whether or not large-scale testing has been done in Russia. Incineration has been used and is being used extensively for both agent and secondary waste in foreign countries. RRS and SCANS have not been used internationally. Neutralization and hydrolysis have been widely used internationally. Has the technology been permitted or otherwise approved in the U.S. for CWM or energetics? The technology been not been permitted or otherwise approved in the U.S. for CWA or energetics. Incineration has been permitted in the U.S. for the destruction of chemical weapons. In addition, commercial incinerators have been used to treat some types of secondary wastes. The technology has been permitted or otherwise approved for use in the U.S. Has the technology been permitted or otherwise approved in the U.S. for industrial wastes? The technology has not been permitted or otherwise approved in the U.S. for industrial wastes. Incineration has been permitted many times in the U.S. for the destruction of industrial wastes. It is a primary technology used to treat most organic industrial wastes in the U.S. Neutralization and hydrolysis have been permitted or otherwise approved for use in the U.S. for industrial waste treatment. How much, if any, additional R&D is required in order to implement the technology? Additional R&D would be required to implement the technology in the U.S. Must locate or develop leachability data for bitumen-salt product. No additional R&D would be required to implement the technology. None What, if any, are the scale-up requirements needed to implement the technology? Depends on the scale of the testing at GOSNIIOCHT, which is not known. No scale-up would be required. None. Can the technology be implemented within 3 to 5 years? Depends on the scale of the testing at GOSNIIOCHT, which is not known, and the outcome of leachability testing. The technology could be implemented within 3 to 5 years. Yes. Overall More information is needed on the status of testing in Russia. Incineration is a very mature technology but may not be applicable to recovered munitions. In general, neutralization (including as used in the RRS and SCANS) and hydrolysis are very mature technologies.

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Review of International Technologies for Destruction of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel TABLE C-2 Process Efficacy/Throughput Subfactor Evaluations for Tier 1 Agent-Only Processing Technologies Process Efficacy Subfactors Tier 1 International Agent-Only Processing Technologies Russian Two-Stage Neutralization/ Bitumenization Incineration U.S.: RRS, SCANS, and Neutralization and Hydrolysis What is the DRE? Destruction efficiencies for the overall process are reported as greater than 99.999 percent. Residual agent concentrations in the final product are generally below the detection limit of 1 10–4 mg/ml. The DRE for agent destruction is greater than 99.9999 percent. RRS can treat to below detection limits of 25 ppb for GB, 50 ppm for mustard, 1 ppm for VX. Does agent destruction meet the terms of the CWC (irreversible and verifiable)? A joint Russian/U.S evaluation report states that the agent destruction meets the terms of the CWC (irreversible and verifiable) (see Chapter 5). Agent destruction meets the terms of the CWC (irreversible and verifiable). Agent destruction meets the terms of the CWC (irreversible and verifiable). What is the DRE for energetics? The technology does not address the destruction of energetics. The DRE for energetics destruction is greater than 99.99 percent. N/A Is the process reliable and robust? The process appears to be reliable and robust. The technology is robust and can be used to destroy a variety of agents and energetics in a wide range of munitions. The process is reliable and robust. Is the process highly complex or relatively simple? The process is very simple. Complexity is variable, depending on application. As used for destruction of the U.S. stockpile, it is complex. As used in Iraq, it is not complex. The process is very simple. What are the personnel/staffing requirements for the technology? The staffing requirements appear to be relatively low. No unusual staffing requirements exist. Probably more than Russian two-stage process. The staffing requirements are relatively low (27 for three-shift operations at Deseret Chemical Depot). What is the process throughput? The Shchuch’ye facility will have a capacity of 1,200 metric tons per year. Process throughput can be very low (Canada, Belgium) or very high (Tooele). Very low. Is the process scalable so that it can address small, medium, and large munition finds? The process appears to be scalable. Conventional liquid phase reactors are used, and these can be purchased in a wide range of sizes. The process is scalable and can be used for essentially any size find. For very small finds, other technologies may be more appropriate. Alternatively, it can be combined with neutralization, or incineration can be used only to destroy neutralents (e.g., hydrolysates) or neutralents and energetics. RRS and SCANS are intended for use on small quantities of CAIS. Neutralization and hydrolysis can be used for small or large finds. Neutralization and hydrolysis systems can be built at any desired capacity. Is the process capable of handling multiple munition types? The process treats agent only, not complete munitions. The technology has been used to destroy multiple munition types. It has been used for non-stockpile-like materials internationally. The process treats agent only, not complete munitions. Is the process capable of handling multiple agent types? The process has been developed for the Russian version of VX, called VR, for VX, for GB and GD, and for mustard agent. The technology has been used to destroy multiple agent types. The technology has been used to destroy multiple agent types.

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Review of International Technologies for Destruction of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel Process Efficacy Subfactors Tier 1 International Agent-Only Processing Technologies Russian Two-Stage Neutralization/ Bitumenization Incineration U.S.: RRS, SCANS, and Neutralization and Hydrolysis Is the process transportable? A transportable version has not been developed; however, there is apparently no reason this cannot be done. The process can be either fixed or transportable, but in the U.S., transportable systems would likely face permitting obstacles. The process can be either fixed or transportable. Overall For its intended purpose, destruction of nerve agents and mustard, the process appears to be effective. The process can be used for a variety of applications and over a range of sizes. For destruction of agent, neutralization and hydrolysis are very effective. TABLE C-3 Process Safety Subfactor Evaluations for Tier 1 Agent-Only Processing Technologies Process Safety Subfactors Tier 1 International Agent-Only Processing Technologies Russian Two-Stage Neutralization/ Bitumenization Incineration U.S.: RRS, SCANS, and Neutralization and Hydrolysis What are the worker safety and health risks? The process appears to offer no unusual safety hazards. Temperatures and pressures are moderate, etc. Process is now very mature. Risks to workers, such as by exposure to agent or to accidents during maintenance, exist but are not excessive. RRS, SCANS, and other neutralization and hydrolysis technologies offer no exceptional safety and health risks. What are the community safety and health risks? Community safety and health risks depend on precautions taken in implementing the technology. Primarily exposure to agent. Minimal. Minimal. What are the process monitoring requirements? Must be able to measure agent and Schedule 2 compounds in the distillate. Must be able to measure agent in the bitumen-salt product and in any offgases. Extensive. The processes are complex. Monitoring for agent at emission points is critical. Process monitoring is moderate. To what extent have engineering controls been developed to ensure process safety? Not known. Engineering controls to ensure process safety have been extensively developed. Engineering controls to ensure process safety have been extensively developed. Overall The process appears to be inherently safe. With care, the process can be operated safely. The process can be operated safely.

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Review of International Technologies for Destruction of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel TABLE C-4 Public and Regulatory Acceptability Subfactor Evaluations for Tier 1 Agent-Only Processing Technologies Public and Regulatory Acceptability in a U.S. Context Subfactors Tier 1 International Agent-Only Processing Technologies Russian Two-Stage Neutralization/ Bitumenization Incineration U.S.: RRS, SCANS, and Neutralization and Hydrolysis Is the process inherently incineration-like? The process is not inherently incineration-like. The process is incineration. The process is not inherently incineration-like. Does the process break key chemical bonds (e.g., C-P bond for nerve agents)? The process breaks P-S and P-F bonds, which cause the toxicity of nerve agents, but apparently not P-C bonds. However, Schedule 2 compounds with P-C bonds are immobilized in the bitumen-salt product. The process breaks all key chemical bonds. Not necessarily. Treatment of neutralents and hydrolysates may be needed for this purpose. Could the process produce dioxins or other notable by-products? The process does not produce dioxins. Other compounds present in the final bitumen-salt product might be of concern. Dioxins and furans can be produced. The process does not produce dioxins or furans. Does the process allow holding and testing of process residuals prior to release? The process allows holding and testing process residuals prior to release. Hold-and-test is not used for the offgases, but liquid and solid secondary wastes can be held and tested prior to release for further management. The process allows holding and testing process residuals prior to release. Does the process result in excessive noise, odors, or other nuisances? The odor of the bitumen-salt product needs to be checked. Otherwise, the process does not appear to result in excessive noise, odors, or other nuisances. No. No. Would the process be able to satisfy environmental regulatory requirements under the RCRA? Yes, very possibly. Leaching tests on the bitumen-salt product are needed. Yes. Yes. Would the process be able to satisfy environmental regulatory requirements under the Clean Air Act (CAA)? With proper engineering design for air pollution controls, it is likely that the process would be able to satisfy environmental regulatory requirements under the CAA. Yes. Yes. Would the process be able to satisfy other applicable environmental regulatory requirements? It does not appear that other environmental regulatory requirements would apply. As evidenced by the obtaining of permits for the four mainland stockpile sites, the process is able to satisfy other applicable environmental regulatory requirements. It does not appear that other environmental regulatory requirements would apply. Does the process satisfy the principles of pollution prevention and waste minimization? A large volume of secondary waste is produced that might or might not contain methylphosphonates and is landfilled, requiring continuing monitoring over time. Secondary wastes produced as a result of incineration are generally low in volume as compared to the original materials. While emissions are generally low, public stakeholders have shown concern about the potential for some types of contaminants (e.g., metals, dioxins) to be released from the stack. Relatively large volumes of secondary waste are produced. Overall Unknown for U.S. applications. Public and regulatory acceptability is not always good. Public and regulatory acceptability is generally good.

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Review of International Technologies for Destruction of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel TABLE C-5 Secondary Waste Issues Subfactor Evaluations for Tier 1 Agent-Only Processing Technologies Secondary Waste Issues Subfactors Tier 1 International Agent-Only Processing Technologies Russian Two-Stage Neutralization/ Bitumenization Incineration U.S.: RRS, SCANS, and Neutralization and Hydrolysis What is the character of secondary wastes? The bitumen-salt final product is a solid and is produced at a volume several times that of the starting agent. More information is needed on the properties of that product, especially regarding leachability of degradation products, metals, and other contaminants. Secondary waste comprise solids, liquids, and gas. Volumes of some streams, such as metal parts from the metal parts furnace, are large. Neutralents and hydrolysates are liquids, usually of substantial volume and toxicity. Toxicity may, however, be due to the nature of the neutralizing (hydrolysis) material and not to chemical agent or degradation product content.   Form (e.g., liquid, solid, gas) Volume Toxicity (e.g., agent, degradation products, metals, other contaminants) Do secondary wastes initially meet: More information is needed on the properties of the bitumen-salt product. While secondary wastes meet GPLs/STELs and CWC requirements, some secondary wastes require additional treatment to meet environmental regulatory requirements. In general, neutralization treats agent to below detection capabilities. Treatment of neutralents and hydrolysates is typically needed to meet CWC and environmental regulatory requirements.   General population limits (GPLs) or short-term exposure limits (STELs)? CWC requirements? Environmental regulatory requirements? For each secondary waste, will subsequent treatment be required: Unlikely. However, additional treatment to reduce leachability could be required. While secondary wastes meet GPLs/STELs and CWC requirements, some secondary wastes require additional treatment to meet environmental regulatory requirements. Treatment may be required to meet CWC and environmental regulatory requirements.   To meet GPLs or STELs? To satisfy CWC requirements? To satisfy environmental regulatory requirements? For each secondary waste, if subsequent treatment is needed, are treatment methods established and available? Dependent on leachability concerns, if any. Yes. Treatment methods for neutralents and hydrolysates are established and available. Will residuals from treatment of secondary waste require subsequent treatment: Dependent on leachability concerns, if any. Some final polishing steps may be needed for some secondary wastes, but such treatment is not uncommon for many industrial wastes. Some final polishing steps may be needed for some secondary wastes, but such treatment is not uncommon for many industrial wastes.   To meet GPLs or STELs? To satisfy CWC requirements? To satisfy environmental regulatory requirements? How are the residuals of final treatment disposed of: In the U.S., the bitumen-salt final product would probably be sent to a hazardous waste landfill. Final treatment residues are sent to various places, as shown in Table 5-2. Various. Depends on treatment method (incineration, biotreatment, etc.).   Recycle? Hazardous waste landfill? Non-hazardous-waste landfill? Other? Overall Probably acceptable. More information is needed on the properties of the bitumen-salt product. Management of secondary waste has become routine. Management of secondary waste has become routine.