Whitson, P.A., R.S. Pietrzyk, B.V. Morukov, and C.F. Sams. 2001a. The risk of renal stone formation during and after long duration space flight. Nephron 89:264-270.

Whitson, P.A., R.S. Pietrzyk, and C.F. Sams. 2001b. Urine volume and its effects on renal stone risk in astronauts. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 72:368-372.

Whitson, P.A., R.A. Pietrzyk, and C.Y. Pak. 1997. Renal stone risk assessment during Space Shuttle flights. J. Urol. 158:2305-2310.

Whitson, P.A., R.A. Pietrzyk, C.Y. Pak, and N.M. Cintron. 1993. Alterations in renal stone risk factors after space flight. J. Urol. 150:803-807.

Whitson, P.A., R.S. Pietrzyk, and C.F. Sams. 1999. Space flight and the risk of renal stones. J. Gravit. Physiol. 6:87-88.

WHO (World Health Organization). 1993. Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants: 41st Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. WHO Technical Report Series 837, World Health Organization, Geneva, Austria.

WHO (World Health Organization). 2001. Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants: 55th Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, WHO Technical Report Series 901, World Health Organization, Geneva, Austria.

Wilson, R.H. 1941. Effects of continued cadmium feeding. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 71:222-235.

Wing, A.M. 1993. The effects of whole wheat, wheat bran and zinc in the diet on the absorption and accumulation of cadmium in rats. Br. J. Nutr. 69:199-209.

Wisniewska-Knypl, J., J. Jablonska, and Z. Myslak. 1971. Binding of cadmium on metallothionein in man: An analysis of a fatal poisoning by cadmium iodide. Arch. Toxicol. 28:46-55.

Wong, P.K. 1988. Mutagenicity of heavy metals. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 40:597-603.

Wu, X., T. Jin, Z. Wang, T. Ye, Q. Kong, and G. Nordberg. 2001. Urinary calcium as a biomarker of renal dysfunction in a general population exposed to cadmium. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 43:898-904.

Zalups, R.K., and S. Ahmad. 2003. Molecular handling of cadmium in transporting epithelia. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 186:163-188.

Zenick, H., L. Hastings, M. Goldsmith, and R.J. Niewenhuis. 1982. Chronic cadmium exposure: Relation to male reproductive toxicity and subsequent fetal outcome. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 9:377-387.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement