SPACECRAFT WATER EXPOSURE GUIDELINES

FOR SELECTED CONTAMINANTS
VOLUME 2

Committee on Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines

Committee on Toxicology

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines: For Selected Contaminants, Volume 2 SPACECRAFT WATER EXPOSURE GUIDELINES FOR SELECTED CONTAMINANTS VOLUME 2 Committee on Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines Committee on Toxicology Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines: For Selected Contaminants, Volume 2 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by Contract No. G-NAG 9-1451 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number 13: 978-0-309-10379-4 International Standard Book Number 10: 0-309-10379-7 Library of Congress Control Number 2004102556 Additional copies of this report are available from The National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street, NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines: For Selected Contaminants, Volume 2 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines: For Selected Contaminants, Volume 2 COMMITTEE ON SPACECRAFT EXPOSURE GUIDELINES Members GAROLDS. YOST (Chair), University of Utah, Salt Lake City A. JOHN BAILER, Miami University, Oxford, OH DAROLE. DODD, CIIT Centers for Health Research, Research Triangle Park, NC KEVIN E. DRISCOLL, Procter and Gamble Pharmaceuticals, Mason, OH DAVID G. GAYLOR, Gaylor and Associates, Eureka Springs, AR1 JACK R. HARKEMA, Michigan State University, East Lansing2 DAVID G. KAUFMAN, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill KENNETH ROSENMAN, Michigan State University, East Lansing KENNETH E. THUMMEL, University of Washington, Seattle JOYCE TSUJI, Exponent Environmental Group, Inc., Bellevue, WA ROCHELLE TYL, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC JUDITH T. ZELIKOFF, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo Staff JENNIFER SAUNDERS, Project Director EILEEN N. ABT, Senior Program Officer SUSAN N.J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Senior Editor ALEXANDRA STUPPLE, Senior Editorial Assistant TAMARA DAWSON, Senior Program Assistant Sponsor NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 1 David G. Gaylor joined the committee in August 2005. 2 Jack R. Harkema joined the committee in October 2005.

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Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines: For Selected Contaminants, Volume 2 COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY Members WILLIAM E. HALPERIN (Chair), New Jersey Medical School, Newark LAWRENCE S. BETTS, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk EDWARD C. BISHOP, Parsons Corporation, Pasadena, CA JAMES V. BRUCKNER, University of Georgia, Athens GARY P. CARLSON, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN MARION EHRICH, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg SIDNEY GREEN, Howard University, Washington, DC MERYL KAROL, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh JAMES MCDOUGAL, Wright State University School of Medicine, Dayton, OH ROGER MCINTOSH, Science Applications International Corporation, Baltimore, MD GERALD WOGAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Staff KULBIR S. BAKSHI, Program Director EILEEN N. ABT, Senior Program Officer for Risk Analysis SUSAN N. J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer ELLEN K. MANTUS, Senior Program Officer JENNIFER SAUNDERS, Associate Program Officer AIDA NEEL, Program Associate TAMARA DAWSON, Senior Program Assistant RADIAH ROSE, Senior Editorial Assistant

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Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines: For Selected Contaminants, Volume 2 BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY3 Members JONATHAN M. SAMET (Chair), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD RAMON ALVAREZ, Environmental Defense, Austin, TX JOHN M. BALBUS, Environmental Defense, Washington, DC DALLAS BURTRAW, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC JAMES S. BUS, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI COSTEL D. DENSON, University of Delaware, Newark E. DONALD ELLIOTT, Willkie Farr & Gallagher LLP, Washington, DC MARY R. ENGLISH, University of Tennessee, Knoxville J. PAUL GILMAN, Oak Ridge Center for Advanced Studies, Oak Ridge, TN SHERRI W. GOODMAN, Center for Naval Analyses, Alexandria, VA JUDITH A. GRAHAM, American Chemistry Council, Arlington, VA WILLIAM P. HORN, Birch, Horton, Bittner and Cherot, Washington, DC JAMES H. JOHNSON, JR., Howard University, Washington, DC WILLIAM M. LEWIS, JR., University of Colorado, Boulder JUDITH L. MEYER, University of Georgia, Athens DENNIS D. MURPHY, University of Nevada, Reno PATRICK Y. O’BRIEN, ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Company, Richmond, CA DOROTHY E. PATTON (retired), Chicago, IL DANNY D. REIBLE, University of Texas, Austin JOSEPH V. RODRICKS, ENVIRON International Corporation, Arlington, VA ARMISTEAD G. RUSSELL, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta ROBERT F. SAWYER, University of California, Berkeley LISA SPEER, Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, NY KIMBERLY M. THOMPSON, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MONICA G. TURNER, University of Wisconsin, Madison MARK J. UTELL, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY CHRIS G. WHIPPLE, ENVIRON International Corporation, Emeryville, CA LAUREN ZEISE, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland Senior Staff JAMES J. REISA, Director DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Scholar RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Senior Program Officer for Environmental Sciences and Engineering KULBIR BAKSHI, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology EILEEN N. ABT, Senior Program Officer for Risk Analysis 3 This study was planned, overseen, and supported by the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology.

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Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines: For Selected Contaminants, Volume 2 KARL E. GUSTAVSON, Senior Program Officer K. JOHN HOLMES, Senior Program Officer ELLEN K. MANTUS, Senior Program Officer SUSAN N.J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer STEVEN K. GIBB, Program Officer for Strategic Communications RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Senior Editor

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Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines: For Selected Contaminants, Volume 2 OTHER REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY Scientific Review of the Proposed Risk Assessment Bulletin from the Office of Management and Budget (2007) Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues (2006) New Source Review for Stationary Sources of Air Pollution (2006) Human Biomonitoring for Environmental Chemicals (2006) Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment (2006) Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards (2006) State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions (2006) Superfund and Mining Megasites—Lessons from the Coeur d’Alene River Basin (2005) Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion (2005) Air Quality Management in the United States (2004) Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River (2004) Atlantic Salmon in Maine (2004) Endangered and Threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin (2004) Cumulative Environmental Effects of Alaska North Slope Oil and Gas Development (2003) Estimating the Public Health Benefits of Proposed Air Pollution Regulations (2002) Biosolids Applied to Land: Advancing Standards and Practices (2002) The Airliner Cabin Environment and Health of Passengers and Crew (2002) Arsenic in Drinking Water: 2001 Update (2001) Evaluating Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Programs (2001) Compensating for Wetland Losses Under the Clean Water Act (2001) A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments (2001) Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals (five volumes, 2000-2006) Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury (2000) Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2000) Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2000) Ecological Indicators for the Nation (2000) Waste Incineration and Public Health (1999) Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (1999) Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (four volumes, 1998-2004) The National Research Council’s Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997) Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet (1996) Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996) Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995) Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995)

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Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines: For Selected Contaminants, Volume 2 Biologic Markers (five volumes, 1989-1995) Review of EPA’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (three volumes, 1994-1995) Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994) Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993) Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992) Science and the National Parks (1992) Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991) Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991) Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990) Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academies Press (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 www.nap.edu

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Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines: For Selected Contaminants, Volume 2 OTHER REPORTS OF THE COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY Review of the Department of Defense Research Program on Low-Level Exposures to Chemical Warfare Agents (2005) Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants, Volume 1 (2004) Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines for Selected Contaminants, Volume 1 (2004) Toxicologic Assessment of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8 (2003) Review of Submarine Escape Action Levels for Selected Chemicals (2002) Standing Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Chemicals (2001) Evaluating Chemical and Other Agent Exposures for Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity (2001) Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1 (2000), Volume 2 (2002), Volume 3 (2003), Volume 4 (2004), Volume 5 (2007) Review of the US Navy’s Human Health Risk Assessment of the Naval Air Facility at Atsugi, Japan (2000) Methods for Developing Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines (2000) Review of the U.S. Navy Environmental Health Center’s Health-Hazard Assessment Process (2000) Review of the U.S. Navy’s Exposure Standard for Manufactured Vitreous Fibers (2000) Re-Evaluation of Drinking-Water Guidelines for Diisopropyl Methylphosphonate (2000) Submarine Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Hydrofluorocarbons: HFC-236fa, HFC-23, and HFC-404a (2000) Review of the U.S. Army’s Health Risk Assessments for Oral Exposure to Six Chemical-Warfare Agents (1999) Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants, Volume 1 (1997), Volume 2 (1999), Volume 3 (1999) Assessment of Exposure-Response Functions for Rocket-Emission Toxicants (1998) Toxicity of Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons: HFC-134a and HCFC-123 (1996) Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors (1996) Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1 (1994), Volume 2 (1996), Volume 3 (1996), Volume 4 (2000)

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Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines: For Selected Contaminants, Volume 2 Preface The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) maintains an active interest in the environmental conditions associated with living and working in spacecraft and identifying hazards that might adversely affect the health and well-being of crew members. Despite major engineering advances in controlling the spacecraft environment, some water and air contamination is inevitable. Several hundred chemical species are likely to be found in the closed environment of the spacecraft, and as the frequency, complexity, and duration of human space flight increase, identifying and understanding significant health hazards will become more complicated and more critical for the success of the missions. NASA asked the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Toxicology to develop guidelines, similar to those developed by the NRC in 1992 for airborne substances, for examining the likelihood of adverse effects from water contaminants on the health and performance of spacecraft crews. In 2000, the NRC report Methods for Developing Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines was published, and NASA now uses those methods for developing spacecraft water exposure guidelines (SWEGs) for individual water contaminants. NASA is responsible for selecting the water contaminants for which SWEGs will be established. To ensure that the SWEGs are developed in accordance with the NRC guidelines, NASA requested that the NRC committee independently review the draft SWEG documents. In its evaluations, the committee reviews the documents as many times as necessary until it is satisfied that the SWEGs are scientifically justified. This report is the second volume in the series, Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines for Selected Contaminants. Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines Volume 1, published in 2004, used the NASA guidelines to establish exposure concentrations for phenol, N-phenyl-beta-naphthylamine, dichloromethane, chloroform, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, silver, and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole. This second volume presents SWEGs for acetone,

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Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines: For Selected Contaminants, Volume 2 alkylamines, ammonia, barium, cadmium, caprolactam, formate, formaldehyde, manganese, total organic carbon, and zinc. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: James V. Bruckner, University of Georgia; Barbara Callahan, University Research Engineers and Associates; Samuel Kacew, University of Ottawa; John O’Donoghue, University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Denistry; and Robert Young, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Ernest McConnell, ToxPath, Inc. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Special thanks are extended to John James and Torin McCoy (NASA); Hector Garcia and Raghupathy Ramanathan (Wyle Laboratories); and Jean Hampton (Texas Southern University) for preparing and revising the SWEG documents. We would also like to thank previous members of the committee who contributed to the development of this document including Joseph Brady, The Johns Hopkins University; Gary Carlson, Purdue University; Donald Gardner, Inhalation Toxicology Associates; Elaine Faustman, University of Washington; Charles E. Feigley, University of South Carolina; Mary Esther Gaulden, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas; William Halperin, New Jersey Medical School; Ralph Kodell, Food and Drug Administration; Robert Snyder, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey; Bernard Wagner, Independent Consultant; and Bernard Weiss, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry. We are grateful for the assistance of the NRC staff in supporting this project and preparing the report. Staff members who contributed to this effort are James J. Reisa, director of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology and Alexandra Stupple, senior editorial assistant. We especially wish to recognize the contributions of senior program officers, Eileen Abt and Susan N.J.

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Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines: For Selected Contaminants, Volume 2 Martel, project director, Jennifer Saunders, and senior project assistant, Tamara Dawson. Finally, we would like to thank all the members of the committee for their dedicated efforts throughout the development of this report. Garold S. Yost, Ph.D. Chair, Committee on Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines

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Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines: For Selected Contaminants, Volume 2 Contents     INTRODUCTION   1      APPENDIXES          1  ACETONE   11      2  AMMONIA   39      3  BARIUM AND BARIUM SALTS   52      4  C1-C4 MONO-, DI-, AND TRIALKYLAMINES   96      5  CADMIUM (INORGANIC SALTS)   154      6  CAPROLACTAM   264      7  FORMALDEHYDE   300      8  FORMATE   342      9  MANGANESE (INORGANIC SALTS)   364      10  TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON   453      11  ZINC AND ZINC SALTS (INORGANIC)   465

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Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines: For Selected Contaminants, Volume 2 SPACECRAFT WATER EXPOSURE GUIDELINES FOR SELECTED CONTAMINANTS VOLUME 2

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