A REVIEW OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE and DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Aerospace Propulsion Needs

Committee on Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs

Air Force Studies Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs A REVIEW OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE and DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Aerospace Propulsion Needs Committee on Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs Air Force Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This is a report of work supported by Grant F49620-01-1-0269 between the U.S. Air Force and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-10 0-309-10247-2 International Standard Book Number-13 978-0-309-10247-6 Limited copies are available from: Air Force Studies Board National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 (202) 334-3111 Additional copies are available from: The National Academies Press Box 285 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20055 (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs COMMITTEE ON AIR FORCE AND DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AEROSPACE PROPULSION NEEDS KENNETH E. EIC KMANN, Chair, U.S. Air Force (retired) DONALD W. BAHR, Independent Consultant DILIP R. BALLAL, University of Dayton, Ohio YVONNE C. BRILL, Independent Consultant DENNIS M. BUSHNELL, NASA Langley Research Center PAUL G.A. CIZMAS, Texas A&M University CHARLES H. COOLIDGE, EADS North America Defense Company DAVID E. CROW, University of Connecticut THOMAS W. EAGAR, Massachusetts Institute of Technology GERARD W. ELVERUM, Independent Consultant CARL E. FRANKLIN, International Falcon Associates, Inc. FRANK C. GILLETTE, Independent Consultant EDWARD M. GREITZER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JEFFREY W. HAMSTRA, Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company BERNARD L. KOFF, TurboVision MITSURU KUROSAKA, University of Washington, Seattle D. BRIAN LANDRUM, University of Alabama, Huntsville IVETT A. LEYVA, Microcosm, Inc.* LOURDES Q. MAURICE, Federal Aviation Administration NEIL E. PATON, Liquidmetal Technologies LAWRENCE P. QUINN, Aerojet ELI RESHOTKO, Case Western Reserve University (emeritus) KENNETH M. ROSEN, General Aero-Science Consultants, LLC ROBERT L. SACKHEIM, NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center** BEN T. ZINN, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Staff JAMES C. GARCIA, Study Director DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, JR., Program Officer CARTER W. FORD, Research Associate WILLIAM E. CAMPBELL, Senior Program Associate LaNITA R. JONES, Senior Program Assistant LINDA D. VOSS, Technical Writer * Affiliation to April 6, 2006. ** Affiliation to May 5, 2006.

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A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs AIR FORCE STUDIES BOARD LAWRENCE J. DELANEY, Chair, Independent Consultant R. NOEL LONGUEMARE, Vice Chair, Independent Consultant FRANK J. CAPPUCCIO, Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company THOMAS DARCY, EADS North America Defense Company STEVEN D. DORFMAN, Air Force (retired) PAMELA A. DREW, Boeing Integrated Defense Systems KENNETH E. EICKMANN, Independent Consultant JOHN V. FARR, Stevens Institute of Technology RAND H. FISHER, Titan Corporation JACQUELINE GISH, Northrop Grumman Corporation KENNETH C. HALL, Duke University WESLEY L. HARRIS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology LESLIE KENNE, LK Associates DONALD J. KUTYNA, Independent Consultant TAYLOR W. LAWRENCE, Raytheon Company GREGORY S. MARTIN, GS Martin Consulting DEBASIS MITRA, Bell Laboratories CHANDRA N. KUMAR PATEL, University of California, Los Angeles RICHARD R. PAUL, The Boeing Company ROBERT F. RAGGIO, Dayton Aerospace, Inc. GENE W. RAY, GMT Ventures ELI RESHOTKO, Case Western Reserve University (emeritus) LOURDES SALAMANCA-RIBA, University of Maryland, College Park MARVIN R. SAMBUR, Independent Consultant LYLE H. SCHWARTZ, Independent Consultant EUGENE L. TATTINI, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Staff MICHAEL A. CLARKE, Director JAMES C. GARCIA, Senior Program Officer DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, JR., Program Officer CARTER W. FORD, Research Associate CHRIS JONES, Financial Associate LaNITA R. JONES, Senior Program Assistant LaSHAWN N. SIDBURY, Program Associate DEANNA P. SPARGER, Program Administrative Coordinator WILLIAM E. CAMPBELL, Senior Program Associate

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A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs Preface This study responds to a request by the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Science, Technology, and Engineering (SAF/AQR) and the Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E) that the National Research Council (NRC) evaluate the U.S. aerospace propulsion technology base to determine if efforts under way will support necessary warfighter capabilities to 2020. The current national context for the study includes fuel prices at historically high levels, ever-increasing costs for sustaining aircraft, a decreasing domestic launch capability, and uncertainty about the availability of U.S. citizens to perform the requisite research on propulsion. All of these factors are of critical importance to U.S. national security. The committee sincerely hopes that this report—the culmination of an extremely intense effort—will enable the Air Force and Department of Defense (DoD) to make informed decisions on future aerospace propulsion needs. As chair, I want to applaud the committee members for their commitment and diligence during the study that enabled us to complete the task successfully. I also want to express the members’ thanks to the Air Force and DoD for their dedicated support throughout the study and for the efforts of National Research Council staff consisting of Michael Clarke, Jim Garcia, Daniel Talmage, Carter Ford, LaNita Jones, Bill Campbell, Liz Fikre, and Anderson intern Dionna Ali. Kenneth E. Eickmann, Chair Committee on Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs

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A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs ROLE OF THE BOARD The Air Force Studies Board (AFSB) was established in 1996 by the National Academies at the request of the Air Force. The AFSB brings to bear broad military, industrial, and academic scientific, engineering, and management expertise on Air Force technical challenges and other issues of importance to senior Air Force leaders. The board discusses potential studies of interest, develops and frames study tasks, ensures proper project planning, suggests potential committee members and reviewers for reports produced by fully independent ad hoc study committees, and convenes meetings to examine strategic issues. The board members listed on page vi were not asked to endorse the committee’s conclusions or recommendations, nor did they review the final draft of this report before its release. Board members with appropriate expertise may be nominated to serve as formal members of study committees or to review reports.

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A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Peter M. Banks, Independent Consultant, Edgar Choueiri, Princeton University, Earl H. Dowell, Duke University, Kenneth C. Hall, Duke University, Hans G. Hornung, California Institute of Technology, Kenneth K. Kuo, Pennsylvania State University, Carl J. Meade, Northrop Grumman Corporation, Michael M. Micci, Pennsylvania State University, Robert E. Schafrik, GE Aircraft Engines, and William A. Sirignano, University of California, Irvine. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions

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A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Louis J. Lanzerotti, New Jersey Institute of Technology. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs Contents     SUMMARY   1 1   OVERVIEW   11      Background,   11      Study Tasks,   11      Capabilities-Based Planning,   12      Propulsion Research,   17      S&T Funding,   18      The Committee’s Judgment,   19      The Reliance Program,   19      Air-Breathing Propulsion Systems,   20      Challenges Facing Air-Breathing Propulsion Systems,   20      Characteristics of Aircraft Needed by Warfighters in 2020,   20      Large Gas Turbine Engine Programs,   23      Small Gas Turbine Engine Programs,   29      Expendable Turbine Engine Programs,   31      Other Technology Programs for Aerospace Propulsion,   32      Rocket Propulsion Systems for Access to Space,   35      Anticipated Military Spacelift Propulsion Needs and Identification of Critical Technologies,   35      Current Technology for Large, First-Stage (Core), Liquid Propellant Booster Engines,   37

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A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs      FALCON Small Launch Vehicles          Air-Based Vertical Launch Concept          Multimission Modular Vehicle Air-Based Launch          ORS Requirements          Affordable Responsive Spacelift Vehicle          Initiatives to Establish New Propulsion Technology Base          National Aerospace Initiative          Integrated High-Performance Rocket Propulsion Technology          Air Force Research Laboratory Efforts Under IHPRPT          Contractor Efforts Under IHPRPT Funding          Other Efforts Under Government or Industry Funding: New Engine Designs and New Propellants, Feed Systems, Pressurization, and Materials          Apparently Superior Foreign Technologies          Defining DoD and Air Force Needs for Propulsion Technology and Tools          Systems Engineering          Modeling and Simulation          Rocket Engine and Motor Test Beds          Important Technologies for Propulsion Systems          Areas That Need More Attention          Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Fuels and Oxidizers          Propulsion Elements          Reliability of the Supply Base          Leveraging Opportunities for Access-to-Space Propulsion          Low-Cost, Responsive Launch Vehicles          Propulsion Technologies Developed by NASA          Status and Capabilities of the U.S. Rocket Propulsion Industry          References     5   ROCKET PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR IN-SPACE OPERATIONS AND MISSILES          Introduction          Current State of the Art in On-Orbit Propulsion          Chemical Propulsion          Electric Propulsion          Promising Technologies for On-Orbit Propulsion and for Tactical and Strike Missiles          IHPRPT Targets for Propulsion Performance    

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A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs      Chemical Propulsion          Electric Propulsion          Propulsion for Strike and Tactical Missiles          Critical Technology Needs That Call for More Attention          Specific Needs          Other Needs          SCARLET: An Existing Technology That Could Be Leveraged          Current Work on Propulsion          Solid Propellant Motors          Hybrid Motors          Gelled Propellant Motors          Opportunities for Transformation in Accomplishing Responsive Global Reach and ABM Missions          Air-Based Vertical Launch Concept          Multimission Modular Vehicle Concept          Critical Enabling Technologies          Final Observation          References     6   CROSS-CUTTING TECHNOLOGIES          Introduction          Fuels          Gas Turbines          High-Altitude, Long-Endurance Unmanned Aircraft Systems          Expendable Missiles with Turbine Engines          Hypersonic and Scramjet Vehicles          Pulsed Detonation Engines          Combined Cycle Engines          Liquid Hydrocarbon Propellants for Rockets          Modeling and Simulation of Complex Hydrocarbon Fuels          Fuel Cost and Logistics Barriers and Alternative Fuels          Materials          High-Temperature Structural Materials          Combustion and Thermal Management          References     7   STRATEGIES, ISSUES, AND FUNDING TRENDS          Maximizing the Return on Investment          Using the Air Logistics Center to Enhance Technology Transition    

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A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs      Spiral Development          Government and Industry Collaboration          Shortening the Demonstration Time          Reliance Program          Innovative Contracting Mechanisms          Mitigating Technology Risks          Additional Issues          Infrastructure          Education          Basic Research          Leveraging Other National Resources          Foreign Aerospace Propulsion Efforts          Gas Turbine Engines          Pulse Detonation Engines and Rockets          Ramjets          Hypersonics          Rockets          Space Propulsion          Environmental Issues          Past and Projected Funding for S&T          References         APPENDIXES          A  Biographical Sketches of Committee Members          B  Meetings and Speakers          C  Site Visits          D  Background Information on the Delta IV and Atlas V Families of Large Launch Vehicles          E  Background Information on FALCON Launch Vehicle Concepts    

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A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs Acronyms AATE Affordable Advanced Turbine Engine ABM antiballistic missile ABVL air-based vertical launch ACS assembly and command ship AEDC Arnold Engineering Development Center AFOSR Air Force Office of Scientific Research AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory AFSB Air Force Studies Board AFSPC Air Force Space Command AIAA American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics AMROC American Rocket Company AoA analysis of alternatives AP ammonium perchlorate AR nozzle area ratio ARES Affordable Responsive Spacelift (vehicle) AT&L acquisition, technology, and logistics BAE British Aerospace BMDO Ballistic Missile Defense Organization C4ISR command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance CADB Chemiautomatics Design Bureau

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A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs CADM computer-aided design and manufacturing CCA cooled cooling air CDR critical design review CEV crew exploration vehicle CFD computational fluid dynamics CIP Component Improvement Program CMC ceramic matrix composite CNT carbon nanotube COBRA Co-optimized Booster for Reusable Applications CONOPS concept of operations CRRA capabilities review and risk assessment CSAR Center for the Simulation of Advanced Rockets CUIP Constellation University Institutes Project CVC constant volume combustor DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DCR dual-combustor ramjet DDR&E Director of Defense Research and Engineering DoD Department of Defense DOE Department of Energy DTAP Defense Technology Area Plan ECEP engine capability enhancement program EELV evolved expendable launch vehicle EHF extremely high frequency EMA electromechanical actuator EMDP engine model derivative program EMTVA electromechanical thrust vector assembly EOP Executive Office of the President EP electric propulsion EPDM ethylene propylene diene monomer ESA European Space Agency ETO Earth-to-orbit FAA Federal Aviation Administration FADEC fuel-authority digital engine/electronic control FALCON Force Application and Launch from the Continental United States FATE Future Affordable Turbine Engine

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A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs FBM fleet ballistic missile FCS Future Combat Systems FEM finite-element model FY fiscal year GE General Electric GEM graphite epoxy motor GITVC gas injection thrust vector control GLOW gross liftoff weight GOTChA goals, objectives, technical challenges, and approaches GTE gas turbine engine GTO geosynchronous transfer orbit H2 hydrogen H2O2 hydrogen peroxide HAN hydroxylammonium nitrate HCV hypersonic cruise vehicle HEDM high-energy-density materials HiReTS high Reynolds number thermal stability HiSTED High-Speed Turbine Engine Demonstration HPDP hybrid propulsion development program HTPB hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene HTV hypersonic technology vehicle HUMS health and usage monitoring system HyCAUSE hypersonic collaboration between Australia and United States experiment HyFly Hypersonics Flight Demonstration HyTech hypersonic technology HyTOP Hybrid Technology Options Project Isp specific impulse IBR integrally bladed rotor IC internal combustion ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization ICBM intercontinental ballistic missile IHPRPT Integrated High-Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology IHPTET Integrated High-Performance Turbine Engine Technology IM insensitive munitions IOC initial operational capability

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A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs IPD integrated powerhead demonstrator IR&D independent research and development ITAPS integrated total aerospace power system ITEP Improved Turbine Engine Program JASSM joint air-to-surface standoff missile JCIDS joint capabilities integration and development system JHL joint heavy lift JSF Joint Strike Force JTAGG joint turbine advanced gas generator lbf pound force lbf/sec pound force per second LEO low Earth orbit LH2 liquid hydrogen LISA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna LOx liquid oxygen LP launch platform ManTech Manufacturing Technology MBSAT Mobile Broadcasting Satellite MHD magnetohydrodynamic MMH monomethylhydrazine MMMV multimission modular vehicle MON mixed oxides of nitrogen M&S modeling and simulation MSFC Marshall Space Flight Center N2H4 monopropellant hydrazine N2O nitrous oxide N2O4 dinitrogen tetroxide NAI National Aerospace Initiative NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NEXT NASA’s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster NGLT Next-Generation Launch Technology NOx nitrogen oxides NPSH net positive suction head NRC National Research Council NSSK North-South station keeping

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A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs NSSS National Security Space Strategy OAM orbit adjust module OC-ALC Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center OEM original equipment manufacturer ORS operationally responsive spacelift ORSC oxygen-rich staged combustion OSC Orbital Sciences Corporation OSD Office of the Secretary of Defense OSP Orbital Suborbital Program OSTP Office of Science and Technology Policy OUSD Office of the Undersecretary of Defense Pc chamber pressure PBR Presidential Budget Request PDE pulsed detonation engine PDR pulsed detonation rocket/preliminary design review PDW pulse detonation wave POM program objectives memorandum POSS polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane PPT pulsed plasma thruster PPU power processing unit PR propulsion and power PRV personnel recovery vehicle psi pounds per square inch psia pounds per square inch absolute P-STAR propulsion sizing, thermal analysis, accountability, and weight relationship first-order modeling tool RATTLRS Revolutionary Approach to Time-Critical Long-Range Strike RCE reaction control engine REAP2 Rocket Engine Advancement Progra R&D research and development RDT&E research, development, testing, and evaluation RDX royal demolition explosive ROM rough order of magnitude SAF Secretary of the Air Force

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A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs SCARLET solar concentrator array with refractive linear element technology SCAT secondary combustion augmented thruster SDD system design and development SECDEF Secretary of Defense SED single-engine demonstrator SFC specific fuel consumption SFS sequential feed system SHFE small heavy fuel engine SHP shaft horsepower SLBM submarine-launched ballistic missile SLI Space Launch Initiative SLV small launch vehicle SMART 1 small missions for advanced research in technology 1 SMP FY06 Strategic Master Plan for FY06 and Beyond SPT stationary plasma thruster SRB solid rocket booster SRM solid rocket motor SSME space shuttle main engine S&T science and technology STOL short takeoff and landing STOVL short takeoff and vertical landing SVTI Space Vehicle Technology Institute TARA technology area review and assessment TBC thermal barrier coating THAAD terminal high-altitude area defense TM thermal management TOW tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided missile TPA turbopump assembly TRL technology readiness level TVC thrust vector control T/W thrust to weight UAH University of Alabama at Huntsville UAS unmanned aircraft system UCAV unmanned combat air vehicle UCC ultracompact combustor UER unscheduled engine removal

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A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs USAF U.S. Air Force USET upper-stage engine technology VAATE Versatile, Affordable, Advanced Turbine Engine VaPak vapor pressurization technology V/STOL vertical or short takeoff and landing VTOL vertical takeoff and landing XIPS Xenon Ion Propulsion System

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