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A Committee and Staff Biographies Robert Duce (Co-Chair) earned his Ph.D. in inorganic and nuclear chemistry in 1964 from MIT. He is a Distinguished Professor of Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and retired Dean of the College of Geosciences at Texas A&M University. Dr. Duce was also Dean of the Graduate School of Oceanography at the University of Rhode Island. His research focuses on atmospheric and marine chemistry, including the global cycling of trace elements, the role of air/sea exchange processes in this cycling, and the impact of atmospheric substances (particularly iron and nitrogen) on ocean productivity. He has been an Ocean Studies Board member since 2001 and has served on several NRC committees. Dr. Duce is a Fellow of the AGU, AMS, AAAS, and the Oceanography Society. He is past president of the Oceanography Society, and the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences. He is also the past president of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR). Nancy Targett (Co-Chair) earned her Ph.D. in oceanography in 1979 from the University of Maine. Dr. Targett is Dean of the College of Marine and Earth Studies at the University of Delaware and Director of the Delaware Sea Grant College Program. Her expertise is in biological oceanography and her research focuses on marine chemical ecology, that is, organismal interactions mediated by naturally occurring metabolites, including: plant/herbivore interactions, predator/prey interactions, detoxification of allelochemicals, chemoattraction, and biofouling. She has been an officer in the International Society of Chemical Ecology, an associate editor for the Journal of Chemical Ecology and an Aldo Leopold Leadership Program Fellow. From 1994-2000 she held an appointment to the Mid Atlantic Fisheries Management Council where she chaired several of their committees. She has also served as a member of the Ocean Studies Board (2001-2003). Denise Breitburg earned her Ph.D. in biology in 1984 from the University of California, Santa Barbara. Dr. Breitburg is a Senior Scientist for the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. Her expertise is in coastal community ecology and the intersections with human communities. She is currently a co- principal investigator on studies to evaluate the nonnative oyster Crassostrea ariakensis as a potential sink or reservoir for pathogens of humans and shellfish. Dr. Breitburg's research focuses on how multiple stressors (such as nutrients, hypoxia, fishing mortality and toxic trace metals) related to human activities influence coastal systems, affecting phytoplankton growth, gelatinous zooplankton population dynamics, and fish growth and survival. She has served as the vice chair of the Chesapeake Bay Program Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee, has been on the Governing Boards of the Estuarine Research Federation and American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, and was a member of the NRC Panel on River Basin and Coastal Systems Planning. David Conover earned his Ph.D. in 1982 from University of Massachusetts. Dr. Conover is a Professor in and Dean and Director of the Marine Sciences Research Center at Stony Brook University. His expertise is in ecology and evolutionary biology, particularly in the area of fisheries science. He has Prepublication 59
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researched all aspects of fish and fisheries, from population dynamics of bluefish to ecosystem-based management of fisheries. He seeks to understand the adaptive significance of reproductive, behavioral, physiological, or life history traits in fishes and to extend this knowledge to fundamental problems in resource management. Dr. Conover also maintains an active research program in applied ecology as it pertains to fisheries science and ecosystem ecology. His position as Dean of the Marine Sciences Research Center keeps him involved in a broad range of marine science issues. Dr. Conover's recent paper topics include: harvest selection, genetic correlations, and evolutionary changes in recruitment; ecosystem-based fishery management; and Darwinian fishery science: lessons from the Atlantic silverside. Cort Cooper has been actively involved in ocean research and development since receiving his BSc and MSc in Engineering at MIT in 1977. He later returned and obtained his PhD from the University of Maine in 1987. Dr. Cooper is an oceanographer in the energy technology company of Chevron. He is also a Chevron Fellow, one of 15 scientists and engineers chosen for their technical contributions to the company. His research efforts have included leading the first comprehensive velocity surveys of the Loop Current in the Gulf of Mexico in the early 1980s and developing a hurricane current model whose results were later adopted as the industry standard. Dr. Cooper has initiated and lead six Joint Industry Projects (JIP) one of them included 32 companies and another 25. These JIPs have successfully resolved major technical questions and established industry standards in some cases. He has been a contributing author of three books, published 14 journal articles, and 28 conference papers. A former member of the Ocean Studies Board, he served on the NRC Committee on Oil in the Sea: Inputs, Fates, and Effects; and has been a frequent advisor to government agencies including NOAA, USGS, U.S. Navy, and the Minerals Management Service (MMS). Catherine Cunningham Ballard holds a B.S. in Resource Development from Michigan State University (gained in 1986) where she also attended graduate school. She is Chief of the Michigan Coastal Management Program, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. As the Program Chief, Ms. Ballard develops policy and distributes funds for protecting, restoring, and promoting appropriate, sustainable use of Michigan's Great Lakes coastal resources. Ms. Ballard has a strong interest in land use and growth management issues at the state and national level. Currently, she is President of the Michigan Association of Planning (Michigan Chapter of the American Planning Association), on the Executive Committee and Chair of the Coastal Water Quality and Land Use Committee, Coastal States Organization, on the Board of Directors for the Land Information Access Association, a non-profit that encourages public participation and access to geo-spatial information and technology. She also serves on the Advisory Committees of the Great Lakes Water Studies Institute and Great Lakes Nonprofit Institute at Northwestern Michigan College, Board of Directors of the Michigan Lighthouse Project and Michigan Lighthouse Fund, and Alumni Board of Directors, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Michigan State University. Recent past service includes participation in a NOAA Coastal Services Center Blue Ribbon Panel. In 2003, Ms. Ballard received the "Outstanding State Official" Award from the Michigan Association of Regions. Gerald E. Galloway earned his B.S. in Civil Engineering from the U.S. Army Military Academy in 1957, a Masters of Science in (Civil) Engineering from Princeton in 1962, a Masters in Public Administration from Pennsylvania State University in 1974 and his Ph.D. in Geography (specializing in Water Resources) from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1979. He is the Glenn L. Martin Institute Professor of Engineering and an Affiliate Professor of Public Policy at the University of Maryland, College Park. In 2004, Dr. Galloway was elected to the National Academy of Engineering for distinguished leadership in the management of sustainable water resources and education in environmental engineering. His research focuses on the development of U.S. national water policy in general and U.S. national floodplain management policy in particular. Dr. Galloway seeks to develop sound approaches to integrated water resources management. Gerry is a member of the National Prepublication 60
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Research Council Water Science and Technology Board and currently serves on the NRC Committee on U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Research as well as the Committee on River Science at the U.S. Geological Survey. Robert Knox holds a B.A. from Amherst College and in 1971 earned a Ph.D. in Oceanography from Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution joint program. He is the Associate Director of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography for Ship Operations and Marine Technical Support as well as a research oceanographer and lecturer. Dr. Knox's research interests are equatorial ocean circulation and dynamics and in acoustic remote sensing of ocean circulation. Dr. Knox chaired the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) Council and served as a member of the Ocean Studies Board. He participated in several National Research Council studies, including serving as the U.S. co-chair of the NRC/Academia Mexicana de Ciencias committee on U.S.-Mexico collaboration in ocean science and as chair of a NRC panel on continuation of operational ocean observations in the post-TOGA (Tropical Ocean/Global Atmosphere) era. He is a National Associate of the National Academies. William Kuperman earned a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Maryland, an M.S. in physics from the University of Chicago, and a B.S. in physics from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. He is the director of the Marine Physical Laboratory (MPL) at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, where he oversees a large multidisciplinary research program focused on exploratory and technology-based research and development of unique underwater sensor systems. Prior to joining the Scripps faculty in 1993, Dr. Kuperman spent much of his career as a researcher at the U. S. Naval Research Laboratory. He is a major figure in ocean acoustics his pioneering work on time reversal in observed ocean acoustic fields is one of several major contributions to research in marine acoustics, now being applied to other fields including medicine and acoustical imaging. Dr. Kuperman holds a Secretary of the Navy/Chief of Naval Operations Oceanography Chair in Oceanographic Science. He was past President and a Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America, the former associate editor of The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, co-author of the textbook Computational Ocean Acoustics and was awarded the 1995 Acoustical Society of America's Pioneers of Underwater Acoustics Medal. Dr. Kuperman became a member of the National Academy of Engineering in 2004 and is currently serving on the Ocean Studies Board. He has served on several NRC committees, including the Committee on Global Change Research. Roger Lukas obtained his Ph.D. in oceanography from the University of Hawaii in 1981 and is currently a Professor at the University of Hawaii, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology. His research focuses on ocean-atmosphere interaction, seasonal-to-interannual climate variability, tropical ocean currents, equatorially-trapped waves and the distribution of oceanic water mass properties in the tropics and subtropics. Dr. Lukas was a member of the Ocean Studies Board and has participated in several NRC studies, including two studies related to ocean observing systems. James Sanchirico received his Ph.D. in agricultural and resource economics from the University of California at Davis. He is currently a Senior Fellow with Resources for the Future. He is a natural resource economist, who primarily focuses on the economic analysis of marine policies, especially the effects of individual transferable quotas and marine protected areas. Dr. Sanchirico is currently a member of the editorial council at the Journal of Environmental Economics and Management and a past associate editor of Marine Resource Economics. He is an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Economics at Georgetown University and he has served as a consultant to international nongovernmental organizations. He is a member of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, and the American Agricultural Economics Association. His merits include honorable mention for the "2000 Quality of Research Discovery Award" from the American Agricultural Economics Association for his article "The Bioeconomics of Spatial Exploitation in a Patchy Environment." Prepublication 61
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Andrew Solow earned his Ph.D. in geostatistics from Stanford University in 1986. Dr. Solow is a Senior Scientist and Director of the Marine Policy Center at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. His research experience involves environmental statistics, time series analysis, spatial statistics, Bayesian methods, statistical biology, and ecology. Dr. Solow has authored or co-authored some 120 scientific publications on topics that range from biological diversity, El Niņo, to empirical analysis on volcanic eruptions. In addition to his work in environmental and ecological statistics, he has worked on problems connected to the value of scientific information. Dr. Solow is a former member of the NRC's Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources, and the Committee on a Review of A Plan for a New Science Initiative on the Global Water Cycle. Denise Stephenson Hawk earned her Ph.D. in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics from Princeton University in 1986. She also gained her M.A. degree in geophysical fluid dynamics from Princeton University and completed her M.S. degree in environmental modeling from The George Washington University; and B.A. degree in mathematics from Spelman College. She is Chairman and CEO of The Stephenson Group, LLC, a consulting firm in Atlanta, Georgia. The Stephenson Group, LLC is engaged in a variety of assignments within government, business and academia which provide strategic, operational and tactical planning in areas of the environment and education. Dr. Stephenson Hawk has served as an atmospheric scientist for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); ocean systems analyst in areas of underwater acoustics for AT&T Bell Laboratories; and as provost, department chair and professor within academia. She currently serves on the science advisory board for the Department of Interior's Minerals Management Service; steering committee for the National Climate and Weather Commission; and advisory board for the Southeast Center for Ocean Science Education Excellence. Dr. Stephenson Hawk is a former member of the science advisory boards for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, National Science Foundation, and the Ocean Research Advisory Panel for the National Oceanographic Partnership Program. STAFF Susan Roberts (Study Director) became the Director of the Ocean Studies Board in April 2004. Dr. Roberts received her Ph.D. in Marine Biology from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Dr. Roberts' past research experience has included fish muscle physiology and biochemistry, marine bacterial symbioses, and developmental cell biology. She has directed a number of studies for the Ocean Studies Board including Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay (2004); Decline of the Steller Sea Lion in Alaskan Waters: Untangling Food Webs and Fishing Nets (2003); Effects of Trawling & Dredging on Seafloor Habitat (2002); Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems (2001); Under the Weather: Climate, Ecosystems, and Infectious Disease (2001); Bridging Boundaries Through Regional Marine Research (2000); and From Monsoons to Microbes: Understanding the Ocean's Role in Human Health (1999). Dr. Roberts specializes in the science and management of living marine resources. Frank Hall received his Ph.D. in Oceanography from the University of Rhode Island in 1991. His dissertation research involved Quaternary paleoceanographic reconstructions of the high- latitude Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. In 1994, he was awarded a Ford Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship to study at the Institute for Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado. In 1998, Frank joined the faculty at the University of New Orleans as a geoscience educator, focusing on the preparation of preservice and inservice grades K-12 science teachers. Prior to joining to the Ocean Studies Board, he served as a Program Officer in the Division of Elementary, Secondary, and Informal Education at the National Science Foundation. Prepublication 62
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Susan Park received her Ph.D. in oceanography from the University of Delaware in 2004. Her dissertation focused on the range expansion of the non-native Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus. In the summer of 2002, she participated in the Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Graduate Policy Fellowship with the Ocean Studies Board. During her fellowship, she worked on the study Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay. Since returning to the Ocean Studies Board full-time in 2006, Susan has worked on the following reports: Review of Recreational Fisheries Survey Methods and Dynamic Changes in Marine Ecosystems: Fishing, Food Webs, and Future Options. Toni Mizerek is currently working toward her Masters at San Diego State University in the Quantitative Conservation Ecology lab. She is working on a population modeling project to assess the combined effects of both harvesting and habitat fragmentation on blue crab populations in Chesapeake Bay. In the summer of 2006, she participated in the Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Graduate Policy Fellowship with the Ocean Studies Board. Toni's conservation interest began during her undergraduate education at the University of California, Santa Barbara. There, in one of the world's biodiversity hot spots, Toni became aware of many local issues of conservation concern and learned how essential a role policy can play. Though the projects she was involved with included a variety of systems, Toni was pleased to focus her attention to the marine realm. She has lived along the coast most of her life and has recognized many serious issues and anthropogenic impacts present in the oceanic environment. She hopes that her time at the National Academies will strengthen her understanding of the policy and science interface enabling more effective strategies to conquer current scientific concerns. Toni loves outdoor activities and sports like snowboarding and softball and is looking forward to discovering what the east coast has to offer. Jeffrey Watters received his M.S. in limnology and marine science from the University of Wisconsin- Madison in 2006. His thesis examined the interactions between commercial longline fisheries and endangered sea turtles species in the Hawaiian Pacific. In the fall of 2006, he participated in the Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Graduate Policy Fellowship with the Ocean Studies Board. During this fellowship, he worked with the committee to Review the JSOST Research Priorities Plan, assisted with the development of the of a study reviewing the baseline monitoring plan for an open-rack, liquefied natural gas deepwater port in the Gulf of Mexico, and assisted with the development of a study reviewing sea turtle population assessment methods. Sarah Capote gained her B.A. in history from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in the winter of 2001. She is a senior program assistant with the Ocean Studies Board. During her tenure with the Board, Ms. Capote worked on the following reports: Exploration of the Seas: Voyage into the Unknown (2003), Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay (2004), Future Needs in Deep Submergence Science: Occupied and Unoccupied Vehicles in Basic Ocean Research (2004), the interim report for Elements of a Science Plan for the North Pacific Research Board (2004), A Vision for the International Polar Year 2007-2008 (2004), Marine Mammal Populations and Ocean Noise: Determining When Noise Causes Biologically Significant Effects (2005), Final Comments on the Science Plan for the North Pacific Research Board (2005), Understanding Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects (2005), Managing Coal Combustion Residues in Mines (2006), and Mitigating Shore Erosion along Sheltered Coasts (2006). Prepublication 63
Representative terms from entire chapter: