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evidence supporting special creation. This was inadequate for a proper scientific explanation and “has no scientific factual basis or legitimate educational purpose.”

Even conservative Christians recognized that creation science had been a legal disaster. Christianity Today editorialized, “Evangelicals are appalled at the adverse publicity given biblical faith by the public media as a result of the recent creation/evolution trial in Arkansas” (Kantzer, 1982). The fundamentalist Moody Monthly published a story asserting that Arkansas was “Where Creationism Lost its Shirt” and, despite being squarely behind creation science, concluded that the problem with the creation science witnesses had been the lack of published research supporting creation (Mawyer, 1982).

Despite their loss in Arkansas, the creationists had high hopes for the parallel bill enacted in Louisiana. The Louisiana bill was drafted with more deliberation and was more vague about the tenets of “creation science,” leaving out explicit mention of the young earth and global flood. Furthermore, the state of Louisiana deputized the creationist lawyer Wendell Bird, ensuring that a highly motivated expert would defend the law from the inevitable American Civil Liberties Union challenge (Larson, 2003).

In the midst of the 1981 wave of creation science legislation and litigation came the first hints of the book that would later introduce the world to ID. The Fall 1981 issue of a creationist student newspaper carried the front-page headline, “Lawsuit prospects dim in Arkansas, bright in Louisiana.” Below the main story was a short announcement for a “high school biology textbook” that would “present both evolution and creation while limiting discussion to scientific data” (Anonymous, 1981). Those interested in the project were urged to contact the Foundation for Thought and Ethics (FTE). FTE is a self-described “Christian think tank” located in Richardson, Texas. It was founded in December 1980 by Jon Buell, who had previously worked at the old-earth creationist Probe Ministries, also in Richardson. A document filed with the IRS in 1981 entitled “What is the Foundation for Thought and Ethics?” declared that:

The Foundation for Thought and Ethics has been established to introduce biblical perspective into the mainstream of America’s humanistic society, confronting the secular thought of modern man with the truth of God’s Word.

FTE described two projects in the works to carry out its goals.

[O]ur first project is a rigorous scientific critique of the theory of prebiotic evolution. Next, we will develop a two-model high school biology textbook that will fairly and impartially view the scientific evidences for

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