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Auchenorrhyncha, 173-176

Avida populations

frequency and distribution of function, 35-37

functional information of, 26, 28, 30, 33-40, 41, 42, 43

islands of function, 36-40

measures of function, 34-35

software, 43

stepped behavior, 37-38, 39-40, 41

Avise, John C., iv, xiii-xiv, 43, 163, 181

Ayala, Francisco J., xiii-xiv, xvii, 3-21, 43, 68, 163, 181, 183, 296

B

Bacteria.

See also Escherichia coli

age of, 19

coadaptation, 171

evolution of multicellularity, 132

flagellum, 171, 285, 289-290, 291, 292, 293

genome analysis, 50, 170

horizontal gene transfer, 167, 168, 170-171, 172, 179

loss of function, 69, 167

pathogenic, 168, 170

phototrophic, 171

resistance to antibiotics, 15-16

symbiotic associations, 167, 170-171, 172, 174-179

toxins, 167

type-III secretory systems, 167

Bacteriocytes, 174

Bacteriomes, 174, 175, 176, 177, 179

Bacteriophages, 170, 179

Baldwin effect, 57, 58

Bananas, 206, 211, 212

Barley, 206, 209, 212, 213, 214

Bat wing evolution, 55-56, 73-74, 75

Baumania cicadellinicola, 175, 176, 177

Beall, Cynthia M., 184, 239-255

Beavis effect, 211

Bees, 50, 146, 148, 149, 152, 153, 154, 157, 159-160, 161, 162, 172

Beetle horn diversification

allometry, 257, 258, 262, 271, 272, 275, 277-279, 281

axis of outgrowth, 265-270, 275-276, 280

comparative studies, 277

developmental model, 258, 275-280

developmental stages, 267

dimorphism and, 257, 261, 262-265, 266, 275, 279, 280, 281

fossil record, 261

gains and losses, 257, 258, 261-262, 264, 280-281

insulin sensitivity, 272, 277-279, 280

morphology, 257, 260, 261, 262-265, 266, 273, 275-277, 279, 280, 281

mutations, 261, 280

natural history of scarabs, 184, 257, 259-265

nutrition-related modulation, 257, 270-273, 275, 277-279

origin, 185, 257, 275-276

patterning genes, 276-277, 279, 280

physical location of horns 262, 263, 273-277, 281

pupal remodeling, 265, 267, 273-275, 279

shape, 257, 262, 264, 276-277, 279, 281

stepwise evolution, 265-275

Behe, Michael, 288-289, 290, 291, 293, 295-296, 299

Bell, Charles, 10, 12

Bennett, Albert F., 183, 225-238

Bernard, Gary D., 187-204

Bess beetles (Passalidae), 259, 260

β-tubulins, 50

Bicyclus anynana, 191

Biocomplexity.

See also Avida populations;

Eusocial insect colonies;

Multicellular organisms

artificial, 26

behavioral, 28

competitive, 32

conserved core processes, 54-55

of cross-purpose, 147

developmental constraints, 65

dimensionality, 28

diversity, 27-28

hierarchical levels, 105-107

information content–function relationship, 27

measuring, 150-151

modeling emergent events, 26, 42-43

natural selection and, 16-17, 54, 55, 68, 69, 73, 85, 93, 95-96

nonadaptive forces, 90-95

origins and evolution of, xvii, 42, 83, 84, 93-95, 103

of purpose, 147



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