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tion “by imitating, in glasses made from different materials, the effects of the different humors through which the rays of light pass before they reach the bottom of the eye. Could this be in the eye without purpose, which suggested to the optician the only effectual means of attaining that purpose?” (Paley, 1802a, p. 23).

ARGUMENT AGAINST CHANCE

Paley summarizes his argument by stating the complex functional anatomy of the eye. The eye consists “first, of a series of transparent lenses—very different, by the by, even in their substance, from the opaque materials of which the rest of the body is, in general at least, composed” (Paley, 1802a, p. 48). Second, the eye has the retina, which as Paley points out is the only membrane in the body that is black, spread out behind the lenses, so as to receive the image formed by pencils of light transmitted through them, and “placed at the precise geometrical distance at which, and at which alone, a distinct image could be formed, namely, at the concourse of the refracted rays” (1802a, p. 48). Third, he writes, the eye possesses “a large nerve communicating between this membrane [the retina] and the brain; without which, the action of light upon the membrane, however modified by the organ, would be lost to the purposes of sensation” (1802a, p. 48).

Could the eye have come about without design or preconceived purpose, as a result of chance? Paley had set the argument against chance in the very first paragraph of Natural Theology (1802a, p. 1), reasoning rhetorically by analogy: “In crossing a heath, suppose I pitched my foot against a stone, and were asked how the stone came to be there, I might possibly answer, that for any thing I knew to the contrary it had lain there for ever; nor would it, perhaps, be very easy to show the absurdity of this answer. But suppose I had found a watch upon the ground, and it should be inquired how the watch happened to be in that place, I should hardly think of the answer which I had before given, that for any thing I knew the watch might have always been there. Yet why should not this answer serve for the watch as well as for the stone; why is it not as admissible in the second case as in the first? For this reason, and for no other, namely, that when we come to inspect the watch, we perceive—what we could not discover in the stone—that its several parts are framed and put together for a purpose, e.g., that they are so formed and adjusted as to produce motion, and that motion so regulated as to point out the hour of the day; that if the different parts had been differently shaped from what they are, or placed after any other manner or in any other order than that in which they are placed, either no motion at all would have been carried on in the machine, or none which would have answered the use that is now served



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