teams. Such a system could also promote appropriate training, by establishing and implementing the minimal qualifications needed to be listed.

RECOMMENDATION 9: Academic institutions offering emergency management curricula should increase the emphasis given to geospatial data and tools in their programs. Geospatial professionals who are likely to be involved in emergency response should receive increased training in emergency management business processes and practices.

RECOMMENDATION 10: The Federal Emergency Management Agency should expand its team of permanent geospatial professionals, and develop strategies that will lead to their more rapid deployment both in response to events and in advance of events when specific and reliable warnings are given.

RECOMMENDATION 11: The Department of Homeland Security should establish and maintain a secure list of appropriately qualified geospatial professionals who can support emergency response during disasters.


Along with the lack of an effective governance process (see Section 4.1), funding is usually identified as a major barrier to effective use of data in preparing for and responding to disaster events. For many organizations, particularly those in states and localities that are comparatively resource poor, there is inadequate funding to build even a basic geospatial capability. For others, funding is lacking for ongoing programs to maintain and update existing geospatial data, for the servers and support services needed to ensure effective access to and use of these data for converting data formats to meet a standard, and for creating the metadata needed to make data accessible through the NSDI. Finally, others lack the capability of participating in coordination activities due to shortage of personnel and funds. At the state level, geospatial preparedness is often not seen as sufficiently important to qualify as a target for funds that flow from federal homeland security programs. Several points are evident: different locations have different sets of needs and requirements across the country; not all of the perceived funding problems can be fixed by the infusion of more money; and funding for geospatial investments has often not been seen as a high priority.

A National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) study, conducted in the late 1990s and titled Geographic Information for the 21st Cen-

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