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Successful Response Starts with a Map: Improving Geospatial Support for Disaster Management SUCCESSFUL RESPONSE STARTS WITH A MAP Improving Geospatial Support for Disaster Management Committee on Planning for Catastrophe: A Blueprint for Improving Geospatial Data, Tools, and Infrastructure Mapping Science Committee Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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Successful Response Starts with a Map: Improving Geospatial Support for Disaster Management THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Award No. W-92759; U.S. Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Contract No. 50-DGNA-1-90024; U.S. Department of Defense/National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Award No. NMA501-03-1-2019 T0029; and Department of the Interior/U.S. Geological Survey, Grant No. 03HQGR0147. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-10340-1 International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-10340-4 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Cover: Designed by Michele de la Menardiere. Top left shows a U.S. Coast Guard rescue from a home surrounded by floodwaters after Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans (AP photo by David J. Phillip); middle right, a simulation of a category-3 storm surge in New Orleans showing emergency services (image courtesy the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency); bottom left shows an area in Long Beach, Mississippi, roughly 1 week after Hurricane Katrina (image, courtesy of Bruce Davis, Department of Homeland Security). Background shows satellite imagery of a forest fire (image courtesy Digital Globe). Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Successful Response Starts with a Map: Improving Geospatial Support for Disaster Management THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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Successful Response Starts with a Map: Improving Geospatial Support for Disaster Management COMMITTEE ON PLANNING FOR CATASTROPHE: A BLUEPRINT FOR IMPROVING GEOSPATIAL DATA, TOOLS, AND INFRASTRUCTURE MICHAEL F. GOODCHILD, Chair, University of California, Santa Barbara ANDREW J. BRUZEWICZ, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Remote Sensing/GIS Center, Hanover, New Hampshire SUSAN L. CUTTER, University of South Carolina, Columbia PAUL J. DENSHAM, University College London AMY K. DONAHUE, University of Connecticut, West Hartford J. PETER GOMEZ, Xcel Energy, Denver, Colorado PATRICIA HU, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Knoxville, Tennessee JUDITH KLAVANS, University of Maryland, College Park JOHN J. MOELLER, Northrop Grumman TASC, Chantilly, Virginia MARK MONMONIER, Syracuse University, New York BRUCE OSWALD, James W. Sewell Co., Latham, New York CARL REED, Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc., Ft. Collins, Colorado ELLIS M. STANLEY, SR., Emergency Preparedness Department City of Los Angeles, California Staff ANN G. FRAZIER, Program Officer JARED P. ENO, Senior Program Assistant (since August 2006) AMANDA M. ROBERTS, Senior Program Assistant (through August 2006)
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Successful Response Starts with a Map: Improving Geospatial Support for Disaster Management MAPPING SCIENCE COMMITTEE KEITH C. CLARKE, Chair, University of California, Santa Barbara ISABEL F. CRUZ, University of Illinois, Chicago ROBERT P. DENARO, NAVTEQ Corporation, Chicago, Illinois SHOREH ELHAMI, Delaware County Auditor’s Office, Delaware, Ohio DAVID R. FLETCHER, GPC, Inc., Albuquerque, New Mexico JIM GERINGER, ESRI, Wheatland, Wyoming JOHN R. JENSEN, University of South Carolina, Columbia NINA S.-N. LAM, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge MARY L. LARSGAARD, University of California, Santa Barbara DAVID R. MAIDMENT, The University of Texas, Austin ROBERT B. MCMASTER, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis SHASHI SHEKHAR, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis NANCY TOSTA, Ross & Associates Environmental Consulting, Ltd., Seattle, Washington EUGENE TROBIA, Arizona State Land Department, Phoenix Staff ANN G. FRAZIER, Program Officer JARED P. ENO, Senior Program Assistant (since August 2006) AMANDA M. ROBERTS, Senior Program Assistant (through August 2006)
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Successful Response Starts with a Map: Improving Geospatial Support for Disaster Management BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES Members GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, Chair, University of Virginia, Charlottesville M. LEE ALLISON, Arizona Geological Survey, Tucson GREGORY B. BAECHER, University of Maryland, College Park STEVEN R. BOHLEN, Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Washington, D.C. KEITH C. CLARKE, University of California, Santa Barbara DAVID COWEN, University of South Carolina, Columbia ROGER M. DOWNS, Pennsylvania State University, University Park JEFF DOZIER, University of California, Santa Barbara KATHERINE H. FREEMAN, Pennsylvania State University, University Park RHEA L. GRAHAM, Pueblo of Sandia, Bernalillo, New Mexico ROBYN HANNIGAN, Arkansas State University, State University MURRAY W. HITZMAN, Colorado School of Mines, Golden V. RAMA MURTHY, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen’s University, Ontario, Canada BARBARA A. ROMANOWICZ, University of California, Berkeley JOAQUIN RUIZ, University of Arizona, Tucson MARK SCHAEFER, Global Environment and Technology Foundation, Arlington, Virginia RUSSELL STANDS-OVER-BULL, BP American Production Company, Pryor, Montana BILLIE L. TURNER II, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts TERRY C. WALLACE, JR., Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico STEPHEN G. WELLS, Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada THOMAS J. WILBANKS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee Staff ANTHONY R. DE SOUZA, Director PAUL M. CUTLER, Senior Program Officer ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Senior Program Officer DAVID A. FEARY, Senior Program Officer ANNE M. LINN, Senior Program Officer ANN G. FRAZIER, Program Officer
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Successful Response Starts with a Map: Improving Geospatial Support for Disaster Management SAMMANTHA L. MAGSINO, Program Officer RONALD F. ABLER, Senior Scholar VERNA J. BOWEN, Administrative and Financial Associate JENNIFER T. ESTEP, Financial Associate CAETLIN M. OFIESH, Research Associate JARED P. ENO, Senior Program Assistant NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Senior Program Assistant
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Successful Response Starts with a Map: Improving Geospatial Support for Disaster Management Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Massoud Amin, University of Minnesota Jane Bullock, Bullock and Haddow, LLC Michael Domaratz, U.S. Geological Survey (retired) Gerald Galloway, University of Maryland David Kehrlein, Environmental Systems Research Institute Arthur Lerner-Lam, Columbia University Henk Scholten, Free University in Amsterdam Seth Stein, Northwestern University Gayle Sugiyama, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Dr. Robert
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Successful Response Starts with a Map: Improving Geospatial Support for Disaster Management Hamilton, National Research Council (retired) and U.S. Geological Survey (retired), and Dr. Chris G. Whipple, ENVIRON International Corporation. Appointed by the NRC, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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Successful Response Starts with a Map: Improving Geospatial Support for Disaster Management Preface After the events of September 11, 2001, there was a widespread sense in the United States and in many other parts of the world that humanity was entering a new and more dangerous era. Subsequent events, such as the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004, the Gulf Coast hurricanes of 2005, and the terrorist bombings of July 7, 2005, in London have if anything strengthened that feeling, as have the potential threats of pandemic flu, dirty bombs, and smallpox. Whether one believes that greenhouse gas emissions are responsible for an increase in the frequency and severity of hurricanes, or that television and the Internet make us all too aware of potential dangers, or that the sheer magnitude of historical events such as the European Black Death of the fourteenth century, the 1556 earthquake in Shansi, China, or the Asian flu pandemic of 1919 overshadow our modern disasters by orders of magnitude, the sheer complexity and interdependencies of modern society clearly make us enormously vulnerable, whether it be to natural disasters or to terrorist attacks. The modern systems that we require to sustain our way of life—the systems that transport our energy, create our food supply, allow us to communicate over vast distances, and maintain our low infant mortality and high life expectancy—are all vulnerable to degrees that would have been unimaginable a few decades ago. Furthermore, the dollar toll from these events is increasing due to population growth in disaster-prone areas, especially in those areas susceptible to hurricanes, floods, and earthquakes. In this new world of the twenty-first century it is essential that we anticipate such events and their potential impacts. It is impossible to know exactly what form they will take, how severe they will be, or where and
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Successful Response Starts with a Map: Improving Geospatial Support for Disaster Management when they will occur, but the value of planning has been amply demonstrated. This report is about the value of a specific area of planning and about how the United States might make improvements in that specific area. Geospatial data and tools are currently used for emergency response, but recent events have demonstrated the many ways in which our geospatial data and tools and the use we make of them fail us, both in preparing for unpredictable events and in responding to them afterwards. This report examines the current use of geospatial data and tools in emergency management and makes recommendations to improve that use. The National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Committee on Geography, now the Geographical Sciences Committee, first discussed the need for this study in 2000, well before the events of September 11, 2001. Those and subsequent events led to a greater sense of urgency, a search for sponsorship, refinement of the study’s charge, and to the eventual formation of a study committee in 2004 under the auspices of the NRC Mapping Science Committee. We thank the sponsors, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, and the U.S. Geological Survey, for providing funding for this study. The committee was composed of 13 members and included scientists, social scientists, and engineers from academia, industry, government, and nongovernmental organizations. Committee members included people with experience in designing decision support tools; users of these tools; and experts in natural hazards, risk analysis, transportation, utility infrastructure, geospatial data and remote sensing, disaster planning and response, and computer and information science. The committee included members with extensive field experience in emergency management and response. Several meetings were held to gather evidence from individuals and representatives of organizations and agencies, including emergency response practitioners and experts in geospatial data and tools. The primary information-gathering event was a workshop held on October 5-6, 2005, which included five discussion panels with approximately 25 panelists from the relevant academic disciplines and agencies and from the commercial software and data products industry. The workshop included a mix of discussion panels and breakout discussions. This report presents the committee’s findings and recommendations. It is designed to be read by any public official who is concerned to make his or her community disaster resilient: leaders of emergency response and emergency operations agencies, elected officials and citizens who are concerned about community vulnerability, agency staff who make or recommend decisions about the allocation or acquisition of resources, developers of technologies, or members of committees charged with developing policies.
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Successful Response Starts with a Map: Improving Geospatial Support for Disaster Management Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 9 1.1 Scope, 9 1.2 Statement of Task and Approach, 10 1.3 Terms and Definitions, 12 2 THINKING ABOUT WORST CASES: REAL AND HYPOTHETICAL EXAMPLES 25 2.1 The September 11, 2001, Attack on the World Trade Center, 26 2.2 A Hypothetical Category 3 Hurricane Making Landfall on Long Island, New York, 30 2.3 A Hypothetical Southern California Earthquake, 39 2.4 Summary, 44 3 EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK 47 3.1 The Context of Disasters, 48 3.2 Relevant Actors, 56 3.3 Federal Policy Relevant to Geospatial Requirements, 70 3.4 Geospatial Data Needs, 78 3.5 Conclusion, 79
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Successful Response Starts with a Map: Improving Geospatial Support for Disaster Management 4 THE CHALLENGE: PROVIDING GEOSPATIAL DATA, TOOLS, AND INFORMATION WHERE AND WHEN THEY ARE NEEDED 87 4.1 Focus on Collaboration, 91 4.2 Geospatial Data Accessibility, 95 4.3 Geospatial Data Security, 105 4.4 Overhead Imaging, 108 4.5 Communication of Reports to and from the Field, 113 4.6 Backup, Redundancy, and Archiving, 116 4.7 Tools for Data Exploitation, 118 4.8 Education, Training, and Accessing Human Resources, 123 4.9 Funding Issues, 128 5 GUIDELINES FOR GEOSPATIAL PREPAREDNESS 133 5.1 Introduction, 133 5.2 Critical Elements in Successful Planning and Response, 134 6 CONCLUDING COMMENTS: LOOKING TO THE FUTURE 145 REFERENCES 149 APPENDIXES A List of Acronyms 155 B Sample Confidentiality Agreement 159 C Preparedness Checklist 163 D Workshop Agenda and Participants 173 E Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff 177