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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Award No. W-92759; U.S. Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Contract No. 50-DGNA-1-90024; U.S. Department of Defense/National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Award No. NMA501-03-1-2019 T0029; and Department of the Interior/U.S. Geological Survey, Grant No. 03HQGR0147. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-10340-1

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-10340-4

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Cover: Designed by Michele de la Menardiere. Top left shows a U.S. Coast Guard rescue from a home surrounded by floodwaters after Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans (AP photo by David J. Phillip); middle right, a simulation of a category-3 storm surge in New Orleans showing emergency services (image courtesy the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency); bottom left shows an area in Long Beach, Mississippi, roughly 1 week after Hurricane Katrina (image, courtesy of Bruce Davis, Department of Homeland Security). Background shows satellite imagery of a forest fire (image courtesy Digital Globe).

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