Commonly Used Data Sets
traditionally been less likely to initiate smoking behavior than adolescents, but their initiation rates also declined, from an annual level of 89.4 first-time smokers per 1,000 people in 1965 to one of 67.5 per 1,000 in 2003 (SAMHSA 2005). It should be noted, however, that despite this overall decline in initiation since 1965, trends over the past twenty years are not entirely encouraging. Developments in youth and young adult initiation over the past two decades are discussed in further detail later in the chapter when the committee more closely reviews recent developments.
These reductions in smoking over the past half century represent hard-won successes for tobacco control programs, because efforts to reduce tobacco consumption have frequently been countered by the tobacco industry in ways designed to maintain its customer base. Just as it did in the early part of the 20th century, the tobacco industry has recently attempted to use pricing, new product development, and advertising to counteract health-driven declines in tobacco consumption (Chaloupka et al. 2002).