ies of many samples as a function of temperature, magnetic fields, pressure, and so on and do not benefit from higher intensities. Hence, a new facility for rare-isotope beams would be of great value for these applications if it met certain requirements for multiuser capabilities and offered long run times.
The transmutation of waste as a key part of future nuclear power fuel cycles is an active area of study in the United States, Japan, Western Europe, Russia, India, and China. Given the likely future growth of fission power, ideas such as fast neutron reactors and accelerator transformation of waste (ATW) for the mitigation of long-lived radioactive waste will certainly be investigated with much greater urgency. Both fast neutron reactors and ATW use high-energy neutrons either to burn or to irradiate waste, thereby favoring fission over (n,γ) processes causing the net destruction of unwanted actinides. In order to accomplish this goal, however, a wide variety of neutron cross sections, including many on unstable neutron-rich isotopes, are required for the improved designs of the detailed operating regime, determining the required levels of isotopic separation and purity. Many of the required cross sections could be measured at a rare-isotope facility in a manner analogous to needs for stockpile stewardship and astrophysics, either by using direct neutron reactions (if available) or by application of the surrogate method. For an application such as this one, the utility of a rare-isotope facility is not in its production of highly exotic nuclei but in the high-volume production of isotopes from which high-precision cross sections can be extracted.