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Cancer Control Opportunities in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
TABLE 5-1 Estimated Smoking Prevalence (by gender) and Number of Smokers, 15 Years of Age and Over, by World Bank Region, 2000
Smoking Prevalence (percentage)
World Bank Region
Percentage of All Smokers
East Asia and Pacific
Europe and Central Asia
Latin America and the Caribbean
Middle East and North Africa
Low and middle income
SOURCE: Reprinted, with permission, from Jha et al. (2006). Copyright 2006 by the World Bank.
ratify the FCTC, which requires them to implement its provisions. The evidence supporting the interventions recommended by the FCTC are reviewed later in this chapter. One caveat for this chapter is that the evidence on the effectiveness of interventions is largely from studies and programs in high-income countries. In recent years, some more research has been conducted in LMCs, but overall, the body of this evidence is relatively small. The assumption is made that behavior will be similar in LMCs and high-income countries, but clearly, direct observation and study in those countries is needed to ensure that interventions are working and, if not, new approaches are developed to respond to local conditions.
More than 1.1 billion people worldwide smoke tobacco. Smoking prevalence is highest in Europe and Central Asia (35 percent of adults), but overall, about 82 percent of smokers are in LMCs (Table 5-1) (Jha et al., 2006). Globally, male smoking far exceeds female smoking; the gender difference is smallest in high-income countries.
The sections on the effects of tobacco and on interventions are based on Jha et al. (2006), the chapter on tobacco addiction from the report Disease Control Priorities in DevelopingCountries.