TABLE 5-1 Estimated Smoking Prevalence (by gender) and Number of Smokers, 15 Years of Age and Over, by World Bank Region, 2000

 

Smoking Prevalence (percentage)

Total Smokers

World Bank Region

Males

Females

Overall

Millions

Percentage of All Smokers

East Asia and Pacific

63

5

34

429

38

Europe and Central Asia

56

17

35

122

11

Latin America and the Caribbean

40

24

32

98

9

Middle East and North Africa

36

5

21

37

3

South Asia

32

6

20

178

15

Sub-Saharan Africa

29

8

18

56

6

Low and middle income

49

8

29

920

82

High income

37

21

29

202

18

SOURCE: Reprinted, with permission, from Jha et al. (2006). Copyright 2006 by the World Bank.

ratify the FCTC, which requires them to implement its provisions. The evidence supporting the interventions recommended by the FCTC are reviewed later in this chapter. One caveat for this chapter is that the evidence on the effectiveness of interventions is largely from studies and programs in high-income countries. In recent years, some more research has been conducted in LMCs, but overall, the body of this evidence is relatively small. The assumption is made that behavior will be similar in LMCs and high-income countries, but clearly, direct observation and study in those countries is needed to ensure that interventions are working and, if not, new approaches are developed to respond to local conditions.

PREVALENCE AND EFFECTS OF SMOKING1

Smoking Prevalence

More than 1.1 billion people worldwide smoke tobacco. Smoking prevalence is highest in Europe and Central Asia (35 percent of adults), but overall, about 82 percent of smokers are in LMCs (Table 5-1) (Jha et al., 2006). Globally, male smoking far exceeds female smoking; the gender difference is smallest in high-income countries.

1

The sections on the effects of tobacco and on interventions are based on Jha et al. (2006), the chapter on tobacco addiction from the report Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries.



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