TABLE 2-1 Leading Risk Factors for Cancer Deaths in LMCs (or Developing Countries) and Primary Prevention Strategies

Cancer Type (number of deaths in LMCs in 2002)

Main Risk Factors

Theoretical Minimum Exposure Distribution

Primary Prevention: Currently Available Strategies

PAF %

Lung, trachea, and bronchus (770,938)

Tobacco use

Zero exposure possible

Tobacco control as outlined in Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)

60

 

Low fruit and vegetable intake

600 grams/day fruit and vegetable intake for adults

Dietary improvements

13

 

Urban air pollution

7.5 μg/m3 for particles with aerodynamic diameters <2.5 microns

15 μg/m3 for particles with aerodynamic diameters <10 microns

Regulation of automobile exhaust and industrial combustion products

7

 

Indoor smoke from cooking and heating

Zero exposure possible

Ventilation and improved low-technology heating and cooking

2

 

Radon in buildings (from the earth)

NGE

Building regulations to avoid radon seepage into enclosed buildings, mainly in cold climates

NGE

 

Various occupational exposures

NGE

Workplace regulation and controls

9b



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