simply not known. Also missing from active participation in the program are the hundreds of enterprises that have IRSs in their possession.

The focus of the program has been on a few quick fixes, rather than on comprehensive long-term approaches. It has been difficult to ensure that Russian facilities will embrace over the long term modern methods of protection, control, and accounting that have been used in the program, and serious questions abound as to the sustainability of activities when the program moves from one activity to the next.

Nevertheless, the cooperative program has helped Russia improve the security of some of its most vulnerable IRSs. Perhaps the most important contribution the program has made is to bring to the attention of the Russian government the seriousness of inadequate protection of IRSs. In each of the program areas, Russian activities seem to be on the rise, probably attributable in some measure to the stimulus of the cooperative program. Also, the cooperative program has enhanced the ability of some Russian organizations to deal with IRSs while building DOE alliances with key Russian organizations that are prepared to do much more if resources are available.

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