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U.S.–Russian Collaboration in Combating Radiological Terrorism U.S.–Russian Collaboration in Combating Radiological Terrorism Committee on Opportunities for U.S.-Russian Collaboration in Combating Radiological Terrorism Office for Central Europe and Eurasia Development, Security, and Cooperation Policy and Global Affairs NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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U.S.–Russian Collaboration in Combating Radiological Terrorism THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. 9953-A-D2 between the National Academy of Sciences and Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific Northwest Division. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-10410-4 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-10410-6 A limited number of copies are available from the Office for Central Europe and Eurasia, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001; (202) 334-2644. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.
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U.S.–Russian Collaboration in Combating Radiological Terrorism THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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U.S.–Russian Collaboration in Combating Radiological Terrorism COMMITTEE ON OPPORTUNITIES FOR U.S.-RUSSIAN COLLABORATION IN COMBATING RADIOLOGICAL TERRORISM John F. Ahearne, Chair, Director, Ethics Program, Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society Laurin Dodd, Managing Director, Chernobyl Shelter Implementation Program (SIP) Project Management Unit, Bechtel International Systems, Inc. Siegfried S. Hecker, Director Emeritus, Los Alamos National Laboratory; Visiting Professor, Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford University Darleane C. Hoffman, Professor of the Graduate School, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley; Faculty Sr. Scientist, Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Roger Kasperson, Research Professor, George Perkins Marsh Institute, Clark University Consultant to the Committee Leroy E. Leonard, Project Leader, Off-Site Source Recovery Project, Los Alamos National Laboratory Staff Glenn E. Schweitzer, Program Director, National Research Council A. Chelsea Sharber, Senior Program Associate, National Research Council Kelly Robbins, Senior Program Officer, National Research Council
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U.S.–Russian Collaboration in Combating Radiological Terrorism Acknowledgments Dozens of U.S. and Russian colleagues were helpful to the committee during the completion of this study. In particular, the committee expresses its appreciation for the steadfast support of Mr. Garry Tittemore of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) who provided important information and insights to the committee throughout its effort. Also, the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Nuclear Safety Institute (IBRAE) played important roles in providing suggestions for the study and in facilitating visits and consultations in Russia. Leonid Bolshov, the director of IBRAE, and Yuri Shiyan of the staff of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences were particularly helpful. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies’ Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Roger Hagengruber, University of New Mexico; Cynthia Jones, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Randy Maddalena, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Paul Moskowitz, Brookhaven National
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U.S.–Russian Collaboration in Combating Radiological Terrorism Laboratory; John Poston, Texas A&M University; and John Till, Risk Assessment Corporation. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Richard Meserve, Carnegie Institution of Washington, and Chris Whipple, ENVIRON. Appointed by the National Academies, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Special thanks are extended to Florence Poillon and A. Chelsea Sharber for their work in editing the report. John F. Ahearne Chair, Committee on Opportunities for U.S.-Russian Collaboration in Combating Radiological Terrorism Glenn E. Schweitzer, Director, Office for Central Europe and Eurasia
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U.S.–Russian Collaboration in Combating Radiological Terrorism Contents Summary 1 Introduction 9 1 The Global Context for Preventing Radiological Terrorism 17 2 Security of Ionizing Radiation Sources in Russia 43 3 U.S.-Russian Cooperation to Improve Security of Ionizing Radiation Sources in Russia 69 4 Conclusions and Recommendations: Reinforcing Russian Capabilities to Protect Ionizing Radiation Sources 81 APPENDIXES A Original Study Task for Opportunities for U.S.-Russian Cooperation in Combating Radiological Terrorism 93 B Committee Biographies 95 C List of Committee Activities 99
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U.S.–Russian Collaboration in Combating Radiological Terrorism D Agenda: U.S.-Russian Workshop on Safety and Security of Ionizing Radiation Sources 101 E Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Funding Profile by Subprogram, 2007 Request 105 F Contents of the Report to the President and the U.S. Congress Under Public Law 109-58, The Energy Policy Act of 2005: The Radiation Source Protection and Security Task Force Report 107