Procedures and Standards for a Multipurpose Cadastre

Panel on a Multipurpose Cadastre

Committee on Geodesy

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS

Washington, D.C.

1983



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Procedures and Standards for a Multipurpose Cadastre Panel on a Multipurpose Cadastre Committee on Geodesy Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1983

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences. the National Academy of Engineering. and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data National Research Council (U.S.). Panel on a Multipurpose Cadastre. Procedures and standards for a multipurpose cadastre. Bibliography: p. 1. Cadastres—United States. 2. Real property— United States—Maps. I. Title. HD205.N37 1982 352.94′19 82-24557 ISBN 0-309-03343-8 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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Panel on a Multipurpose Cadastre MacDonald Barr, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Chairman John D.McLaughlin, University of New Brunswick, Canada, Cochairman Richard R.Almy, International Association of Assessing Officers, Chicago Kurt W.Bauer, Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission, Waukesha Kenneth J.Dueker, Portland State University Earl F.Epstein, University of Maine, Orono G.Warren Marks, The Pennsylvania State University Kenneth Strange, Turner, Collie & Braden, Inc., Houston, Texas Liaison Members John Behrens, U.S. Bureau of the Census Charles Finley, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Clif Fry, U.S. Geological Survey Armando Mancini, Defense Mapping Agency Jerome Smith, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development James Stem, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Douglas J. Wilcox, Bureau of Land Management Gene Wunderlich, U.S. Department of Agriculture Staff Hyman Orlin, Executive Secretary Penelope Gibbs, Project Secretary

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Committee on Geodesy Byron D. Tapley, The University of Texas at Austin, Chairman MacDonald Barr, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Cambridge, Massachusetts Charles C.Counselman III, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Adam Dziewonski, Harvard University Edward M.Gaposchkin, Lexington, Massachusetts John C.Harrison, University of Colorado Buford K.Meade, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (retired) Richard H.Rapp, The Ohio State University Fred N.Spiess, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Liaison Members John D.Bossler, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Frederick J.Doyle, U.S. Geological Survey John R.Filson, U.S. Geological Survey Bernard Hostrop, Bureau of Land Management Armando Mancini, Defense Mapping Agency Jesse W.Moore, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Staff Hyman Orlin, Executive Secretary Penelope Gibbs, Project Secretary

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Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources Herbert Friedman, National Research Council, Cochairman Robert M.White, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Cochairman Stanley I.Auerbach, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Elkan R.Blout, Harvard Medical School William Browder, Princeton University Bernard F.Burke, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Herman Chernoff, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Walter R.Eckelmann, Exxon Corporation, New York Joseph L.Fisher, Secretary of Human Resources, Office of the Governor, Richmond, Virginia James C.Fletcher, University of Pittsburgh William A.Fowler, California Institute of Technology Gerhart Friedlander, Brookhaven National Laboratory Edward A.Frieman, Science Applications, Inc., La Jolla, California Edward D.Goldberg, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Konrad B.Krauskopf, Stanford University Charles J.Mankin, Oklahoma Geological Survey Walter H.Munk, University of California, San Diego Norton Nelson, New York University Medical Center Daniel A.Okun, University of North Carolina George E.Pake, Xerox Research Center, Palo Alto, California David Pimentel, Cornell University Charles K.Reed, National Research Council Hatten S.Yoder, Jr., Carnegie Institution of Washington Raphael Kasper, Executive Director

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Preface In Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre (Committee on Geodesy, 1980) it is stated, “there is a critical need for a bettcr land-information system in the United States to improve land-conveyance procedures, furnish a basis for equitable taxation, and provide much-needed information for resource management and environmental planning.” That report discusses existing land-information systems and the multipurpose cadastre as a basis for a dynamic, public process that efficiently collects. maintains. and disseminates land information. It not only identifies the land-resource-related problems faced by public and private organizations but also outlines the nature of a multipurpose cadastre as a means to remedy these problems. However, the questions of how governments, especially local governments, can carry out the recommendations made in that report were not answered. To address the questions left unanswered by its 1980 report, the Committee on Geodesy of the National Research Council undertook this study on recommended procedures and standards for a multipurpose cadastre. The report was prepared by individuals who have practical knowledge of land-information needs and problems at the local level and who have been active in efforts to satisfy those needs and to solve those problems, including members of university faculties concerned with these matters.

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Contents     Executive Summary   1 1   Introduction   6      1.1  Purposes of this Report   6      1.2  Scope of this Report   7      1.2.1  Suggested Local Procedures for Building a Modern Cadastre   7       1.2.1.1  Densification of the Geodetic Reference Frame   8       1.2.1.2  Production and Maintenance of Base Maps   8       1.2.1.3  Preparation of Cadastral Overlays   8       1.2.1.4  Building and Maintaining Land-Parcel Registers and Data Files   9      1.2.2  Suggested Procedures for Linking Other Land Information to the Cadastre   9       1.2.2.1  Referencing Other Land Information to the Base Map and Cadastral Overlay   9       1.2.2.2  Direct Comparison of Other Land Information with Cadastral Records   9      1.3  Review of the Report Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre   10      1.3.1  Components of a Multipurpose Cadastre   10      1.3.2  Improving Land-Information Systems   10      1.3.3  Essential Requirements for a Multipurpose Cadastre   11      1.4  Multipurpose Cadastre Concepts   12      1.4.1  Origins   12      1.4.2  Evolution of the North American Cadastral Arrangements   13

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                1.4.3  Nature of a Modern Cadastre   13      1.4.4  The Cadastre as Part of a Larger Geographic-Information System   14      1.4.5  Distinctive Features of the Multipurpose Cadastre   15      1.5  Government Responsibilities   18      1.5.1  County Government Responsibilities   18      1.5.2  State Responsibilities   19      1.5.3  Federal Guidelines   19 2   The Geodetic Reference Framework   20      2.1  Background   20      2.1.1  The National Geodetic Survey   20      2.1.2  State and Local Geodetic Networks   21      2.2  Geometric Framework Requirements for the Cadastre   22      2.2.1  Fundamental Concepts   22      2.2.2  Design Issues   23      2.2.3  The Public Land Survey System   25      2.3  Outlook for New Technology   28      2.3.1  Photogrammetric Triangulation   29      2.3.2  Inertial Surveying   30      2.3.3  Satellite Doppler Positioning   32      2.3.4  Global Positioning System   33      2.3.5  Other Positioning Technologies   34      2.3.6  Conclusions Regarding Feasibility   36 3   Base Maps   37      3.1  Alternative Forms of Maps   37      3.2  Source Material   39      3.3  Content   41      3.4  Accuracy   43      3.5  Outlook for New Technology   45      3.5.1  High-Altitude Photography   45      3.5.2  Satellite Systems   47      3.5.3  Digital Mapping and Interactive Graphics   50 4   Cadastral Survey Requirements and the Cadastral Overlay   55      4.1  Creation and Maintenance of Cadastral Overlays   56      4.1.1  Comprehensive versus Iterative Mapping Programs   57      4.1.2  Sequence of Tasks   58      4.2  Cadastral Survey Requirements   59

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                4.2.1  Scope of Standards Required   59      4.2.2  Accuracy of Position   60      4.3  Standards for Assigning Parcel Identifiers   63      4.3.1  Criteria for Designing a System of Identifiers   63      4.3.2  Control of New Parcel Numbers   65 5   Organizing Other Land-Parcel Records   66      5.1  Measuring User Requirements   67      5.1.1  Nature of Interests in Cadastral Information   67      5.1.2  Requirements for Land-Title Recording   69      5.1.3  Requirements for Real-Property Assessment   70      5.1.4  Requirements for Land-Use Planning and Regulation   74      5.1.5  Requirements for Public Works   75      5.1.6  Requirements for Public Health and Safety Functions   76      5.1.7  Requirements for Financial Management   76      5.2  Standardizing the Descriptions and Coding of Property Characteristics   77      5.2.1  Alternative for Classifying Land Parcels   77      5.2.2  Characteristics of the Land and Location   78      5.2.3  Characteristics of Structures   81      5.3  Procedures for Collection and Maintenance of Compatible Data   82      5.3.1  Typical Data Sources   83      5.3.2  Designing Data-Collection Forms   84      5.3.3  Designing Data-Collection Manuals   91      5.3.4  Editing and Auditing Cadastral Records   91      5.3.5  Data Maintenance   93      5.4  System Design and Development Procedures   93      5.4.1  System Planning   94      5.4.2  System Analysis   95      5.4.3  System Design   95      5.4.4  System Development and Implementation   96      5.5  Acquiring Computing Capabilities   97      5.6  Security and Confidentiality   99 6   The Evolving Land-Information Environment   100      6.1  Integration of Data through Spatial References   101      6.2  Application of Geographic-Information-System Concepts to Land Information   102      6.3  Exchanges of Data between Land-Information Systems   103

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           7   Organization and Budget for a Multipurpose Cadastre   106      7.1  Factors that Shape the Local Cadastral Record System   107      7.1.1  The Issue of Centralization: Operations versus Control   107      7.1.2  The Politics of Changing Local Systems   109      7.2  Potential Roles of Other Participants outside the Local Government   110      7.2.1  Intergovernmental Arrangements within the Region   110      7.2.2  Private Data Bases in the Locality   110      7.2.3  State Operating Agencies   112      7.2.4  State Coordinating Agencies   112      7.2.5  Federal Programs   113      7.3  Summary of Costs for Prototypical Counties   115      7.3.1  The Dimensions of Prototypical Counties   115      7.3.2  Summary of Cost Estimates for Prototypes   117      7.4  Personnel Resources for Management and Staffing   119      7.5  Financing the Development Costs   120      7.5.1  Real Estate Taxes   120      7.5.2  User Charges   121      7.5.3  Joint Venture with Large Private Data Users   122      7.5.4  State Matching Funds   122      7.5.5  Federal Matching Grants   123 8   Recommended Activities at the National Level   125      8.1  Clear Statements of Objectives Needed   126      8.2  Drafting and Promotion of Standards   127      8.3  Recognition of Standards by Federal Agencies   127      8.4  Organizing a Program of Federal Assistance   128 Appendix A   Laying the Technical Foundation for a Multipurpose Cadastre: Referrals and Case Studies   129      A.1  The Southeastern Wisconsin Region   133      A.2  DuPage County, Illinois   150      A.3  Jefferson County, Colorado   155      A.4  The Philadelphia Area   159 Appendix B   United States National Map Accuracy Standards   167     References   169

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Procedures and Standards for a Multipurpose Cadastre

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