the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides: First Biennial Update. He received a Ph.D. in biochemical pharmacology and toxicology from the University of Texas at Austin.

Cynthia A. Afshari is the associate director of the Toxicology Department at Amgen, Inc. Her expertise is in the areas of molecular toxicology, functional genomics/toxicogenomics, in vitro models, and carcinogenesis. At Amgen she leads the Investigative and In Vitro Screening Toxicology groups and conducts research in new predictive toxicity assays. She is also responsible for guiding preclinical safety assessment work for several therapeutic project teams at Amgen. Previously, she was an adjunct professor of toxicology at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and was the director of basic research applications at the NIEHS Microarray Center for 4 years. At NIEHS she headed an interdisciplinary group of biologists, engineers, and computer scientists investigating applications of new genomics technologies to mechanistic toxicology. Dr. Afshari serves as the chair of the Steering Committee of the Subcommittee on Application of Genomics and Proteomics to Mechanism-based Risk Assessment organized by the Health and Environmental Science Institute (HESI) of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) and was chair of the nephrotoxicity and database working groups of the same ILSI-HESI subcommittee for 2 years. She is also a member of the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) Genomics Subcommittee and is an associate editor of Toxicologic Pathology, Toxicological Sciences, and a reviewing editor for Environmental Health Perspectives. She earned her Ph.D. in toxicology from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and is a board-certified toxicologist.


Linda E. Greer is senior scientist for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) and the director of its health program. She received a Ph.D. in environmental toxicology from the University of Maryland. Dr. Greer’s primary focus concerns toxic chemical pollution regulatory issues and risk assessment. She is currently focusing particularly on mercury pollution. Dr. Greer has served on numerous NRC committees, including the Committee on Industrial Competitiveness and Environmental Protection, the Committee on Ground Water Cleanup Alternatives, and the Committee on Hazardous Wastes in Highway Rights-of-Way. Dr. Greer also was a member of the NRC’s Board on Life Sciences until 2004.



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