ology to estimate doses for a large number of individuals in a thyroid cohort study and a leukemia case-control epidemiological study conducted at the University of Utah for the National Cancer Institute (Lloyd et al. 1990a, 1990b). More recently, the dosimetry system for the thyroid cohort study was restored and updated to calculate doses in the 1980s (Simon et al. 2006).
When the Radiation Studies Branch of NCEH first became involved in dose reconstruction studies after the signing of the MOU, it used the National Academy of Sciences (NAS)-National Research Council (NRC) to provide scientific advice on dose reconstructions and to help NCEH establish research priorities (NRC 1995). The NAS-NRC organized a committee whose charge was the following:
Review and comment on the design, methods, analysis, statistical reliability, and scientific interpretation of dose reconstruction and related epidemiological follow-up studies.
Recommend ways to strengthen study protocols and analyses to enhance the quality of these studies.
To accomplish its task, the 1995 NRC committee not only reviewed NCEH’s dose reconstruction efforts at Fernald and Hanford, but also drew on the collective knowledge of 47 scientists from around the world with experience and expertise relevant to reconstructing radiation exposures of human populations. The scientists participated in a 3-day workshop in October 1993 and were asked to assist the committee in identifying criteria to be considered when undertaking radiation dose reconstruction studies, to examine the pitfalls encountered in previous studies, and to recommend areas of needed research. The committee’s findings were reported to NCEH and published in a report (NRC 1995). NCEH took account of this information as it initiated new dose reconstruction studies.
To a large extent, however, selection of the dose reconstruction studies arose out of public concern and pressure. NCEH assumed responsibility for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project following the signing of the MOU. A dose reconstruction project at Fernald was mandated by Congress, a study at Los Alamos was requested by the governor of New Mexico, and similarly, a dose reconstruction at Idaho National Laboratory was requested by the governor of Idaho. For selection of the remaining studies, NCEH stated that they also relied on the early Advisory Committee for Energy-related Epidemiological Research (ACERER)1 recommendations (see Chapter 1).
Table 4-1 provides an overview of the DOE sites at which NCEH has been responsible for dose reconstruction activities. It is apparent from the table that the