of the Marine Ecosystems Research Laboratory at URI for 20 years. His current research interests include the chemistry of seawater, biochemistry and physiology of marine organisms, and nutrient cycling. He received a B.Sc. in chemistrybiology from Bishop’s University, in Canada, an M.Sc in Agricultural Biochemistry from McGill University, and a Ph.D in marine biology from the University of California, San Diego. He is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; Sigma Xi; the American Geophysical Union; the American Society of Mammalogists; the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography; and the Oceanography Society. He has published extensively, including the text book An Introduction to the Chemistry of the Sea.

Jeffrey J. Siirola (NAE) is a research fellow in the Chemical Process Research Laboratory at Eastman Chemical Company in Kingsport, Tenn. He received his B.S. degree in chemical engineering from the University of Utah in 1967 and his Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1970. His research centers on chemical processing, including chemical process synthesis, computer-aided conceptual process engineering, engineering design theory and methodology, chemical technology, assessment, resource conservation and recovery, artificial intelligence, nonnumeric (symbolic) computer programming, and chemical engineering education. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering.

James E. Smith is professor of decision sciences at the Fuqua School of Business at Duke University. He teaches courses in probability and statistics and decision modeling. Dr. Smith’s research interests lie primarily in the areas of decision analysis and real options, focusing on developing methods for formulating and solving dynamic decision problems and valuing risky investments. His research has been supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, Chevron, and the Eli Lilly Foundation. Dr. Smith received B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering from Stanford University (in 1984 and 1986) and worked as a management consultant prior to earning his Ph.D. in engineering-economic systems at Stanford in 1990. He has been at Fuqua since the fall of 1990 and received the Outstanding Faculty Award from the daytime MBA students in 1993 and 2000. He served as associate dean for the Duke MBA Program from 2000-2003. He has been a member of the Advisory Panel for the National Science Foundation’s Decision Risk and Management Science program and has been departmental editor for decision analysis at the journal Management Science.

Robert H. Socolow is a professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at Princeton University, where he has been on the faculty since 1971. He was previously an assistant professor of physics at Yale University. Professor Socolow is a fellow of the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He currently codirects Princeton University’s Carbon Mitigation Initiative, a multidisciplinary investigation of fossil fuels in a future carbon-constrained world. From 1979 to 1997, Professor Socolow directed Princeton University’s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies. He has served on many NRC boards and committees, including the Committee on R&D Opportunities for Advanced Fossil-Fueled Energy Complexes, the Committee on Review of DOE’s Vision 21 R&D Program, and the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems. He has a B.A., an M.A., and a Ph.D. in physics from Harvard University.

John M. Wootten is retired vice president, Environment and Technology, Peabody Energy. He spent most of his professional career with Peabody Holding Company, Inc., the largest producer and marketer of coal in the United States. His positions at Peabody and its subsidiaries included that of director of environmental services, director of research and technology, vice president for engineering and operations services, and president of Coal Services Corporation (COALSERV). His areas of expertise include the environmental and combustion aspects of coal utilization, clean coal technologies, and environmental control technologies for coal combustion. He has served on a number of NRC committees, including the Committee on R&D Opportunities for Advanced Fossil-Fueled Energy Complexes and the Committee to Review DOE’s Vision 21 R&D Program. He received a B.S. (mechanical engineering) from the University of Missouri-Columbia and an M.S. (civil engineering, environmental and sanitary engineering curriculum) from the University of Missouri-Rolla.

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