Biographical Memoirs


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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 Biographical Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Biographical Memoirs VOLUME 88 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Congress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its corporate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. Any opinions expressed in this memoir are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Academy of Sciences. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-10389-4 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-26629 Available from THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 FIFTH STREET, N.W. WASHINGTON, D.C. 20001 COPYRIGHT 2006 BY THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ALL RIGHTS RESERVED PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 CONTENTS     PREFACE   vii     HENRY NATHANIEL ANDREWS, JR. BY TOM L. PHILLIPS   3     STANLEY ARTHUR BARBER BY W. R. GARDNER AND WILLIAM MCFEE   25     DAVID MAHLON BONNER BY MAARTEN J. CHRISPEELS   41     CHARLES STACY FRENCH BY GOVINDJEE AND DAVID C. FORK   63     HERBERT FRIEDMAN BY HERBERT GURSKY   91     EDWARD LEONARD GINZTON BY ANTHONY E. SIEGMAN   111     THOMAS GOLD BY GEOFFREY BURBIDGE AND MARGARET BURBIDGE   145

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88               HERBERT SANDER GUTOWSKY BY JIRI JONAS AND CHARLES P. SLICHTER   159     VLADIMIR HAENSEL BY STANLEY GEMBICKI   175     JAMES DANIEL HARDY BY ARTHUR B. DUBOIS   189     CHARLES GLEN KING BY JOHN E. HALVER AND NEVIN S. SCRIMSHAW   215     JOHN I. LACEY BY J. RICHARD JENNINGS AND MICHAEL G. H. COLES   229     FRITZ ALBERT LIPMANN BY WILLIAM P. JENCKS AND RICHARD V. WOLFENDEN   247     FRANCIS DANIELS MOORE BY JUDAH FOLKMAN   269     WALLE J. H. NAUTA BY EDWARD G. JONES   285     CHARLES NORWOOD REILLEY BY ROYCE W. MURRAY   305     FREDERICK C. ROBBINS BY ADEL MAHMOUD   323     RICHARD EVANS SCHULTES BY LUIS SEQUEIRA   339     THOMAS DALE STEWART BY DOUGLAS H. UBELAKER   353     VLADIMIR KOSMA ZWORYKIN BY JAN RAJCHMAN   369

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 PREFACE On March 3, 1863, Abraham Lincoln signed the Act of Incorporation that brought the National Academy of Sciences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scientists, elected for outstanding contributions to knowledge, who can be called upon to advise the federal government. As an institution the Academy’s goal is to work toward increasing scientific knowledge and to further the use of that knowledge for the general good. The Biographical Memoirs, begun in 1877, are a series of volumes containing the life histories and selected bibliographies of deceased members of the Academy. Colleagues familiar with the discipline and the subject’s work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a record of the life and work of our most distinguished leaders in the sciences, as witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. They form a biographical history of science in America—an important part of our nation’s contribution to the intellectual heritage of the world. JOHN I. BRAUMAN Home Secretary

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