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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 Photograph by Lars Speyder

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 EDWARD LEONARD GINZTON December 27, 1915–August 13, 1998 BY ANTHONY E. SIEGMAN EDWARD L. GINZTON’S MULTIFACETED career spanned an era of immense technological advances in physics, electronics, and microwaves—and of important advances in social and political issues. Throughout his long and productive life his remarkable combination of scientific skills, leadership qualities, technological foresight, and community concerns enabled him to make distinguished technical contributions and to build enduring institutions in which others could make such contributions as well. Ginzton’s scientific career began in the late 1930s when he helped develop the understanding of feedback in early vacuum tube amplifiers and worked with the pioneers who invented the klystron. It continued through his leadership in developing modern microwave technologies and megawatt-level klystron tubes during and after World War II, and in helping make possible the development of linear electron accelerators both as mile-long “atom smashers” and as medical tools still in use worldwide for cancer radiation therapy. His abilities eventually led him to take distinguished roles in both the academic and industrial worlds and in local and national community service as well.

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 By the end of his career Ginzton held some 50 fundamental patents in electronics and microwave devices, had received the 1969 IEEE Medal of Honor “for his outstanding contributions in advancing the technology of high power klystrons and their applications, especially to linear particle accelerators,” and had been elected to the National Academy of Sciences (1966) and the National Academy of Engineering(1965). Beyond this, to borrow from the words used by photographer Carolyn Caddes in her Portraits of Success: Impressions of Silicon Valley Pioneers, “Ginzton [also] contributed to the growth of Silicon Valley as scientist, educator, business executive, environmentalist, and humanitarian.” 1915 TO 1929: EARLY YEARS IN RUSSIA AND IN EXILE Ginzton was born on December 27, 1915, in the Ukrainian city of Ekaterinoslav to Natalia Philapova, a Russian physician, and Leonard Ginzton, an American medical student. So far as can be determined from the confusing records available even to Ginzton himself, his father was born in Russia but as a young man emigrated first to Germany and then to America, where he became a U.S. citizen and participated in the Klondike Gold Rush of 1897. After some success in finding gold, Leonard Ginzton traveled back to Switzerland, began his first real period of formal education, and after a few years returned to Russia to study medicine and to marry Ginzton’s mother in 1905. During the following two decades Ginzton’s parents, idealistic medical students and eventually doctors, were caught up in the birth of six children, only two of whom survived infancy, and in the turmoil associated with World War I, the final years of tsarist Russia, and the rise of the new Soviet state. As Ginzton later recalled in an informal autobiography:

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 Since both of my parents participated as medical officers on the Eastern Front, my early childhood consisted of rapid migration with the tides of war, revolution, and other similar events. Until I was 8 we did not live in any one place for more than six months, and I was not exposed to formal education until I was 11. As I was supposed to have had tuberculosis, I was [at one period] sent to the Black Sea by myself, with only occasional visits by my relatives. In 1927 Ginzton’s parents decided to leave Russia, partly in response to the tragic death two years earlier of Ginzton’s only surviving sibling, Leonard. As revolution swept through the Russian empire, the Ginzton family sought refuge in the distant city of Harbin, Manchuria. Still lacking any formal education, Ginzton had a private tutor there for a period of a year, during which he learned just enough to catch up with the requirements of the Russian school in Harbin. 1929: ARRIVAL IN THE UNITED STATES AND STUDIES AT BERKELEY In the autumn of 1929 Ginzton’s father arranged for the family to emigrate from Manchuria to the United States. On his arrival in San Francisco the 13-year-old Ginzton, “knowing not a word of English,” was placed in the first grade in the public schools. Less than four years later he graduated from San Francisco’s Polytechnic High School and in the spring of 1933 entered the University of California, Berkeley, to study electrical engineering. In addition to his studies Ginzton joined the Reserve Officers Training Corps, hiked in the High Sierra, enjoyed amateur photography, played chess at a competitive level, and organized an intramural water polo team. His ROTC participation eventually led to a commission as a second lieutenant in the Army Reserve, but he was never called to active duty. Graduating from Berkeley three years later in the middle of the Great Depression, Ginzton, unable to find employ-

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 ment, chose to continue with graduate work at Berkeley. During the following year he took further courses, did independent research on the theory of electronic circuits, and invented the “balanced feedback principle.” “It was not much of an invention,” Ginzton later recalled, but the circuit analysis and experimental work were enough for an M.S. degree from Berkeley in 1937 and a publication in the Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers (1938). 1937: FIRST ARRIVAL AT STANFORD UNIVERSITY Ginzton’s subsequent application for a graduate fellowship together with his work on negative feedback at Berkeley led to a meeting with Frederick Terman, who had been working for some time to build a radio electronics curriculum at Stanford. Terman immediately offered him a teaching assistantship and Ginzton moved to Stanford in 1937 to enroll in Terman’s graduate program in electrical engineering. Ginzton later recalled that in doing this, I became a member of a graduate class of about 15. This group was of unusually high caliber [one of Ginzton’s closest friends in the group was William Hewlett] and we learned as much from each other as from formal c1asswork. We organized seminars on topics which were not being taught but which appeared to us to be of importance. We became fascinated [with] the principle of negative feedback, and much of the experimental work in this field, as well as the theory, evolved from the research of this group of students. The students helped revise and expand an early edition of Terman’s Radio Engineering textbook and lectured to each other from papers in the Bell System Technical Journal. Ginzton’s research on feedback eventually led to an engineer degree thesis on applications of feedback at radio frequencies in 1938, and a Ph.D. dissertation on stabilized negative impedances in 1940.

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 During his first week at Stanford, Ginzton also enrolled in a course in modern physics taught by William W. Hansen, a young but very highly regarded faculty member in the Stanford Physics Department. In 1939 as Ginzton neared the end of his Ph.D. work, Hansen, with Terman’s encouragement, invited him to join the Varian brothers Russell and Sigurd in continuing the development of the klystron tube, a pathbreaking microwave device invented two years earlier by Russell Varian. Ginzton explored the characteristics and potential applications of the new tube and developed new methods for making microwave measurements— activities that set him on a path to several of the major accomplishments of his subsequent career. Ginzton thus had the good fortune during his student years at Stanford to develop lifelong relationships with many microwave and electronics pioneers, including William Hewlett, David Packard, and Karl Spangenberg in Terman’s laboratory, and the Varians and others in Hansen’s group. He also married Artemas A. McCann on June 16, 1939. The couple subsequently had four children: Anne, Leonard, Nancy, and David. 1941 TO 1946: WAR YEARS AT SPERRY GYROSCOPE Stanford had entered into an agreement in 1938 under which the Sperry Gyroscope Company acquired ownership of the klystron patents and opportunities to participate in continuing klystron development at Stanford in return for the promise of future royalties to the Varian brothers and Stanford. In late 1940 as World War II broke out in Europe and American involvement came to be seen as inevitable, most of the Stanford klystron group, including Hansen, Ginzton, and the Varian brothers, transferred to the Sperry plant in Garden City, New York, to continue development of the klystron for microwave radar applications.

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 Very soon after arriving at Sperry, Ginzton, still in his late twenties, began to demonstrate his leadership abilities, and by 1946 he was directing a staff of some 2,000 people working on klystron microwave tubes, microwave measurement techniques, and Doppler radar systems. As Ginzton later noted, “[During these] six years I invented some 40 or 50 devices, some of which were relatively important.” The Doppler radar techniques developed under Ginzton’s direction at Sperry introduced the basic features of many sophisticated civilian and military radars today. Even as they devoted long working hours to these developments, however, Ginzton, Hansen, and the Varian brothers continued to think about the research plans that the war had forced them to leave behind at Stanford. In Ginzton’s own words, during what free time they had, the four colleagues all “dreamed together, had lots of ideas we wanted to pursue” when the war was over—including the idea of founding a company whose directions and objectives would be set by scientists and not by businessmen. 1943: STANFORD’S POSTWAR PLANS Others back at Stanford had similar thoughts about postwar opportunities. In the late 1930s some of Stanford’s academic leaders had come to recognize that their university, though a respected regional institution, was not one of the top 10 among American universities. A 1938 article in the Atlantic Monthly ranked Stanford with Penn, Illinois, Iowa, and Ohio State as competing for twelfth place in national rankings. A group of senior academics led by Donald Tresidder, the unusually young and energetic president of the Board of Trustees, thus began around 1940 to formulate plans for bringing Stanford to a stature on the West Coast comparable to Harvard, MIT, and other major universities on the East Coast.

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 These plans resonated with Frederick Terman, who had struggled to develop his own radio research laboratory activities at Stanford in the late 1920s and 1930s with very meager resources before heading east to head the Radio Research Laboratory at Harvard during World War II. When Tresidder became president of Stanford in 1943, he along with Terman and others, set out to build postwar “steeples of excellence” (Terman’s phrase) at Stanford, taking advantage of new technologies and new government and industrial funding that would become available as an outcome of wartime experiences. Hansen, spending the war years in East Coast laboratories, had also proposed to his widely dispersed Physics Department colleagues that following the war Stanford should set up an interdisciplinary laboratory to continue the advances that had grown out of the prewar invention of the klystron and wartime developments in microwave technology, and to exploit these for both scientific and technological purposes. Felix Bloch, who first came to Stanford as a refugee from Hitler’s regime in the early 1930s and was back after serving in a variety of wartime positions, agreed that Hansen’s microwave laboratory was a good idea scientifically as well as technologically. He was equally eager to bring Hansen, whom he greatly respected as a physicist, back to Stanford. The Stanford Board of Trustees responded to the urgings of Tresidder and Terman, who had returned from Harvard to become dean of engineering, and in 1945 approved the creation of a microwave research laboratory as part of Stanford’s School of Physical Sciences, with close ties to the School of Engineering. Hansen, already back at Stanford since 1944, and Ginzton, still at Sperry, were appointed as director and assistant director of the new laboratory.

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 1946 TO 1949: LOADED WAVEGUIDES AND MEGAWATT KLYSTRONS By March 1946 Hansen had returned to his faculty position in physics, and Ginzton to a new junior faculty position in the same department. Because of concerns by some over his purely engineering background, Ginzton was appointed assistant professor of applied physics rather than physics, with a parallel appointment in electrical engineering. He was promoted the following year to associate professor of applied physics. Marvin Chodorow, who had become a colleague at Sperry, also joined them as a physics faculty member. As part of his initial teaching and research activities Ginzton developed a comprehensive family of microwave measurement tools, “making our laboratory the best of its kind in the world,” while Chodorow developed course and research activities in microwave electronics. But most of all, Ginzton, Hansen, and Chodorow were seeking to accelerate electrons using those microwave tubes. The Stanford Physics Department’s interest in X rays and in generating energetic particles to explore nuclear physics dated back to the 1920s and early 1930s. Hansen’s invention of the microwave cavity resonator in 1936 had been partly motivated by a desire to find a cheap method of obtaining high-energy electrons. This motivation remained strong and was shared by Ginzton following World War II. Others around the world had similar goals, though many of these groups thought the more interesting results in nuclear physics would come from accelerating heavier particles, such as protons or ions. The Stanford group was focused, however, on the acceleration of electrons using “loaded waveguide” linear accelerator structures with a diameter of a few inches, down which microwaves and electrons could travel in perfect synchronism at just infinitesimally less than the velocity of light.

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 The electrons, surfing on the crests of the microwave cycles and continually pushed forward by the microwave fields, thus gained energy, and converted this energy into mass as they traveled. Linear accelerators offered two great advantages over other schemes for accelerating particles: Since the electrons traveled in straight lines rather than curved paths, they did not continually lose energy to synchrotron radiation; and the accelerator itself could be built in the form of individual modules perhaps 10 feet in length, which could then be cascaded to almost unlimited lengths and energies. Such a linear accelerator, perhaps 200 feet in length and driven by sufficient microwave power, could be made to accelerate electrons to a billion electron volts (1 GeV), and these electrons could then be used as probes to study the still largely unknown interior structures of the nuclei of atoms. They already had the waveguide structure they needed: a cylindrical copper pipe 3.5 inches in diameter containing transverse copper disks 1/4 inch thick and 1 inch apart with a 1-inch hole in the center of each disk for the electron beam to pass through. The microwave fields in this structure were analyzed by E. L. Chu and Hansen in early 1947, and later that year Ginzton, Hansen, and W. R. Kennedy prepared a remarkably prescient 20-page paper describing exactly how a few hundred feet of this pipe, driven by several hundred megawatts of microwave power at 3 GHz, could be used to accelerate electrons up to 1 GeV. There would be no problem in steering the electrons through thousands of such holes in succession, they found; to the relativistic electrons the whole pipe would appear to be only a few inches long. Their paper, submitted in November 1947 and published under the title “A Linear Electron Accelerator” in the February 1948 issue of the Review of Scientific Instruments, laid the foundation for several generations of

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 electron linear accelerators that continue in operation today and that have provided the primary tools for at least half a dozen Nobel Prizes. Still unsolved at this point, however, was the problem of how to generate the hundreds of megawatts of microwave power required to drive such a linear accelerator. As a result of intensive development during the war years, pulsed magnetrons that could generate peak pulse powers of at least a few megawatts were widely available by the end of the war. Distributed injection at multiple points along a lengthy accelerator pipe required, however, that the injected microwave signals originate from a single weak but very stable master oscillator and then be amplified to multimegawatt levels by individual microwave amplifiers at each injection point. This was something that magnetrons could not do. They could function very well as small, powerful, and highly efficient pulsed oscillators—just the thing, it was later realized, for microwave ovens—but not as clean and stable amplifiers. It was Ginzton who realized early on that the klystron could potentially provide the needed megawatt power levels. As of 1946 most klystrons produced power outputs from a few tens of milliwatts to a few tens of watts, although during the war years Ginzton had seen in England a few klystron amplifiers with pulsed power outputs of 20 kilowatts. Ginzton had the bold vision that klystron amplifiers could be made to deliver not just tens of kilowatts but tens of megawatts from a single tube—and moreover that he could make the required leap of 1,000 times or more in power output in a single step, rather than a lengthy sequence of many smaller steps. Success in achieving this goal would very likely make possible Hansen’s linac (linear accelerator) and its goal of GeV electrons. None of the necessary components for Ginzton’s klystrons existed at the time,

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 LATER YEARS: CIVIC AND COMMUNITY LEADERSHIP In addition to his leadership roles in technical and business affairs, Ginzton had strong interests in bettering his community and played a major role as a leader in championing fair housing and clean air before they became fashionable. He was founder and cochair with David Packard from 1968 to 1972 of the Stanford Mid-Peninsula Urban Coalition, an organization that helped launch minority-owned small businesses, and continued as a member of its Executive Committee until 1974. As a member of the Board of Directors of the Mid-Peninsula Housing Development Corporation beginning in 1970, Ginzton worked on community education and health issues and supported efforts to meet the need for affordable housing. Ginzton was supported in these efforts by his wife, Artemas, who was active in her own community and conservation efforts, especially on behalf of trails, hostels, and the preservation of unrecognized architectural masterpieces. With an appreciation for the land, an eye for the unusual, and an unconventional sense of opportunities, she worked on projects including the Santa Clara County master plan for trails, a system of bicycle trails along California aqueducts, and the conversion of abandoned Pacific coast lighthouses into hostels. Ginzton also served as a director of the locally founded Stanford Bank from 1967 to 1971, a member of the Advisory Board of the Mid-Peninsula Region of the Union Bank from 1971 to 1973, and a member of Northern California Advisory Board of the Union Bank from 1973 to 1981. In his later years Ginzton also responded to both of the universities at which he had studied, serving on the Advisory Committee for the School of Business Administration at the University of California from 1968 to 1974 and the

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Scientific and Educational Advisory Committee from 1972 to 1980. At Stanford he served as chair of the Advisory Board for the School of Engineering from 1968 to 1970; as a member of the Board of Directors of the Stanford University Hospital from 1975 to 1980; a member of the board of the university’s National Bureau of Economic Research from 1983 to 1987; and a member of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory’s Science Policy Board from 1985 to 1990. He also served for two terms as a member of the university’s Board of Trustees from 1977 to 1985. HONORS AND AWARDS Ginzton had been a member of the Institute of Radio Engineers, or IRE (now the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, or IEEE) since his student days in 1936 and was elected a fellow of the IRE in 1951. He received the Morris Liebmann Memorial Prize from the IRE in 1957 for his contributions in the development of megawatt-level klystrons, and the IEEE Medal of Honor in 1969 for his overall accomplishments in the development of microwaves. He subsequently served as a member of its Board of Directors from 1971 to 1973, and chaired its Awards Board from 1970 to 1972 and its Long Range Planning Committee in 1973 and 1974. He was also a member of the U.S. National Committee of the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) from 1958 to 1968. Ginzton was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1965, the National Academy of Sciences the following year, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1971, and subsequently gave extensive service to all of these groups. This included serving as a member of the NAE Council from 1974 to 1980, and chairing, from 1971 to 1972, the NAS Committee on Motor Vehicle

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 Emissions, a group created to advise Congress on the technological feasibility of the Clean Air Act of 1970. From 1973 to late 1974 he served on the Coordinating Committee for Air Quality Studies of the NAS, and in 1975 was a member of an NAS committee to advise the U.S. Environmental Research and Development Agency, or ERDA, on the creation of the Solar Energy Research Institute. Later that year he became cochair with Harvey Brooks of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems, charged with recommending to ERDA plans and strategies for the energy future of the United States. Ginzton also traveled with National Academy of Sciences delegations to Hungary in 1966, Bulgaria in 1972, and the U.S.S.R. in 1973 and 1975, and served on NAS Committees on International Relations from 1977 to 1980, on Scientific Communications and National Security from 1982 to 1984, and on the Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research from 1985 to 1988. THE EDWARD L. GINZTON LABORATORY By the mid-1970s Stanford’s Microwave Laboratory, the direct descendent of Hansen and Ginzton’s initial efforts, had become well established in many new areas of applied physics under the direction of Marvin Chodorow, with widely recognized accomplishments in quantum electronics, lasers and nonlinear optics, acoustic and scanning microscopy, fiber optics, and superconducting materials. In 1976 the laboratory was formally renamed the Edward L. Ginzton Laboratory in recognition of Ginzton’s many contributions to its earlier history and to the developments at Stanford that his accomplishments had made possible. Two decades later its sister laboratory, the High Energy Physics Laboratory, or HEPL, was renamed the Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory.

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 AVOCATIONS During his active years Ginzton devoted his leisure time to outdoor activities, including skiing, sailing, and hiking, all of which he shared with his children, and to avocations that included a deep and lifelong personal interest in photography and the restoration of vintage automobiles. At the time of the Carolyn Caddes portrait mentioned below, he had three Model A Fords in his garage awaiting restoration, although his ultimate pride and joy was a 1929 Packard Phaeton sedan, a car of the same vintage as his own arrival in California. With various members of his family he also traveled widely, including flying over Africa in a hot-air balloon and attending a banquet in the Saudi Arabian desert. Other round-the-world journeys took them to Machu Picchu, the Great Pyramids and the Sphinx, the Great Wall of China, and down the Glen Canyon of the Colorado River. His interest in photography began in childhood when he prepared his own chemicals and even coated his own photographic printing paper. These early interests were strongly reinforced during the 1940s, when his wife, Artemas, presented him with a course of studies at the Museum of Modern Art in New York under Ansel Adams. This led to a longtime friendship with Adams and an extensive collection of Adams prints. As a photographer, he was a classicist, preferring black and white to color and large-scale-view cameras to 35 mm. He continued to maintain a personal darkroom in his home in retirement, spending many hours on printing to produce the effect that he originally thought would be most satisfying for each image.

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 PHILOSOPHY AND BELIEFS Ginzton’s continuing accomplishments during his lifetime clearly stemmed not only from his outstanding technical abilities and his devotion to his work but also from his ability to attract others to join with him in important enterprises, his remarkable foresight and vision, and his social concerns. In the interview that accompanied his retirement portrait Ginzton told Carolyn Caddes, “Grow and become educated, but do not equate professional training with education. Try to learn how to think. Attempt to do what you want to do. Making a living is not enough.” Ginzton’s commitment to cooperation with others might be symbolized by the second word in the original name of Varian Associates. Throughout Ginzton’s career his associates first at Sperry, then at Stanford, and finally at Varian spoke of his collegial management style, which encouraged and stimulated those around him to work at a high level of accomplishment. His vision and his technical foresight are exemplified by a brief but remarkably comprehensive summary of the future applications of microwaves in both basic science and technology that Ginzton wrote in 1956, in which he noted: Many of us are so immersed in the ever-narrowing branches of electrical engineering that it is difficult to take stock of the accomplishments in the field as a whole or to visualize the possibilities and limitations of future developments. For those of us engaged in teaching and research … such an assessment is necessary if we are to guide our students properly and anticipate the probable roles of our own specialties … It is evident that the applications of present microwave knowledge will continue to grow, both in number and diversity; but despite the daily invention of novel applications, we must not become complacent. Every field of research has a finite half-life …

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 Keeping the importance of basic research in mind, those of us who have specialized in this field must anticipate either more prosaic engineering applications or a change to some other branch of science. Many will remain to explore and exploit the possibilities for which the foundation is now laid; but some will think of exploring the higher regions of frequency lying beyond the microwaves. The study and generation of still shorter wavelengths appears as fascinating and promising today, as the microwave region appeared in 1936. Now, as then, there are many practical difficulties, challenging to the imagination and ingenuity of human skill but which offer, for the scientific adventurer, unknown rewards. Those of us who have had the good fortune to participate in the opening up of 22 infrared and optical regions “beyond the microwaves” made possible by the invention of the laser—an invention that occurred only four years after these words were written—can only admire their wisdom. At time of his death on August 13, 1998, Ginzton was survived by his wife of 59 years, Artemas McCann Ginzton, and his children, Leonard of La Canada, California; David of Sandpoint, Idaho; Nancy of Los Altos Hills, California; and Anne (Cottrell) of Berkeley, California. It seems appropriate to close this memorial with the same words as in Edward Barlow’s National Academy of Engineering memorial tribute to Ginzton: “He was truly a man of broad interests and large and persistent vision, who enjoyed life to the fullest and cared about his family, his associates, and his community.” The results of that vision and that caring persist today, in major institutions and in smaller personal memories, across the Silicon Valley landscape and around the world. NOTES AND REFERENCES Much of the biographical information in this memoir (and inevitably some of the wording as well) has been taken

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 from various press releases and biographies in the files of the National Academies and Varian Inc.; from an IEEE Legacy profile of Ginzton in a booklet distributed at the IEEE Annual Banquet in 1969, when Ginzton was awarded the IEEE’s Medal of Honor; from Ginzton’s 1984 interview with the Oral History project of the IEEE and a brief autobiographical sketch prepared by Ginzton himself in April 1989; from an obituary in the January 1999 issue of Physics Today prepared by Ginzton’s longtime colleague Karl L. Brown of SLAC; and from the NAE memorial tribute for Ginzton prepared by Edward J. Barlow and published in Memorial Tributes: National Academy of Engineering (vol. 10, pp: 100-105, National Academy Press, 2002). A brief but rewarding biographical note accompanying a notable black-and-white portrait of Ginzton in retirement can also be found in Carolyn Caddes’s Portraits of Success: Impressions of Silicon Valley Pioneers (Palo Alto, Calif.: Tioga Publishing, 1986). A large amount of archival material related to Ginzton and his career can be located (though not directly accessed) through the Online Archives of California (OAC) at www.oac.cdlib.org/, including links to material in the Stanford University Archives and the Special Collections of the Stanford University Library and the Varian Associates Records in the Bancroft Library of the University of California at Berkeley. Carolyn Caddes’s interview notes and negatives for her volume are also stored in the Stanford University archives. Reminiscences of Ginzton in interviews by several of his professional colleagues, including Marvin Chodorow, Bill Rambo, and Mike Villard, along with the IEEE Legacy and Ginzton’s own 1984 interview mentioned above, can be accessed online by searching on “Ginzton” at the IEEE Web portal (www.ieee.org/portal/index.jsp).

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 More detailed information on Ginzton’s career at Stanford, especially the postwar developments that brought Hansen and Ginzton back to Stanford, the subsequent founding of SLAC, and the controversies over academic and science policies that ensued, can be found in C. Stewart Gillmor’s definitive history Fred Terman at Stanford: Building a Discipline, a University, and Silicon Valley (Stanford University Press, 2004) and to a lesser extent in Rebecca S. Lowen’s very inaptly titled Creating the Cold War University: The Transformation of Stanford (University of California Press, 1997). Much of the information relating to Ginzton’s collaboration with W. K. H. Panofsky comes from a tribute to Panofsky presented by Sidney Drell at the 26th Annual Awards Dinner of the San Francisco Exploratorium held on April 30, 2003, the full text of which is available on the Exploratorium website. More detailed accounts of how the original Mark III linac evolved into Project M and then SLAC can be found in a May 1966 Technical Report “The Story of Stanford’s Two-Mile-Long Linear Accelerator” by Douglas Dupen and in a 1983 contribution by Ginzton himself, both available on the SLAC website (www.slac.stanford.edu/history/.) Preeminent over all of these, however, are Ginzton’s own very personal reminiscences as recorded in his 1995 volume Times to Remember: The Life of Edward L. Ginzton, edited by his daughter Anne Ginzton Cottrell and Leonard Slater Cottrell and published by the Blackberry Creek Press in Berkeley, California.

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1938 Application of feedback at radio frequencies, (engineer dissertation, Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University). A balanced feedback amplifier. Proc. IRE 26:1367-1379. 1939 Theory and applications of stabilized negative impedances. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University. 1945 Theory and application of stabilized negative impedance. Parts I, II, and III. Electronics (Jul., Aug., and Sept.):140-150, 138-148, 140-144. 1946 With A. E. Harrison. Reflex-klystron oscillators. Proc. IRE 34:97-113. 1948 With W. W. Hansen and W. R. Kennedy. A linear electron accelerator. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 19:89-108. With W. R. Hewlett, J. H. Jasberg, and J. D. Noe. Distributed amplification. Proc. IRE 36:956-969. 1949. With M. Chodorow and F. Kane. A microwave impedance bridge. Proc. IRE 37:634-639. 1950 With M. Chodorow, I. Neilsen, and S. Sonkin. Development of 10-cm high-power pulsed klystron. Proc. IRE 38:208. 1951 With M. Chodorow. Velocity modulated tubes. Adv. Electron. 3:43-83.

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 1953 With W. C. Barber and A. L. Eldredge. Possible medical and industrial application of linear electron accelerators. Proc. IRE 41:422. With M. Chodorow, I. R. Neilsen, and S. Sonkin. Design and performance of a high-power pulsed klystron. Proc. IRE 41:1584-1602. 1954 The klystron. Sci. Am. 190:84-89. 1955 With M. Chodorow, W. W. Hansen, R. L. Kyhl, R. B. Neal, and W. K. H. Panofsky. Stanford high-energy linear electron accelerator (Mark-III). Rev. Sci. Instrum. 26:134-204. 1956 Microwaves—present and future. IRE Trans. M. T. T. MTT-4:136. 1957 Microwave Measurements. New York: McGraw-Hill. Translated into Russian in 1960 and Polish in 1961. With K. B. Mallory and H. S. Kaplan, M.D. The Stanford medical linear accelerator: Design and development. Stanford Med. Bull. 15(Aug.). 1958 Microwaves. Science 127:841-851. 1959 With M. Chodorow, J. Jasberg, J. V. Lebacqz, and H. J. Shaw. Development of high-power pulsed klystrons for practical applications. Proc. IRE 47:20-29. 1961 With W. Kirk. The two-mile long electron accelerator. Sci. Am. 205:49-51.

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Biographical Memoirs, Volume 88 1975 The $100 idea: How Russell and Sigurd Varian, with the help of William Hansen and a $100 appropriation, invented the klystron. IEEE Spectrum (Feb.). Reprinted in IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. ED-23:714-723 (1976). 1977 With H. Brooks. National Academy energy study. Science 196:372. 1995 A. G. Cottrell and L. S. Cottrell, eds. Times to Remember: The Life of Edward L. Ginzton. Berkeley, Calif.: Blackberry Creek Press.