S&T in development and is somewhat broader than more traditional definitions of S&T that focus on research and on science and engineering in education. From the vantage point of developing (and middle-income) countries, S&T should involve interconnected national and international systems of activities that encourage the acquisition and generation of important knowledge and the application of this knowledge to improve the quality of life and the security of populations.1

Thus, S&T is integral to the capacity of the public and private sectors in Kazakhstan to:

  • provide technical services that support economic and social development—such as the provision of health care, education, agriculture extension, transportation, communications, maintenance and upgrading of water and sanitation facilities, management of natural resources, and energy and environmental services;

  • assess the economic and technical merits of technologies being considered for use and within that context carry out research, development, technology transfer, technology adaptation, and technology application activities;

  • produce industrial goods and agricultural products based on technologies and modern management methods that are well suited to the local environment;

  • prepare and evaluate implementation of economic, trade, industrial, agricultural, health, educational, environmental, and other policies that have technical dimensions or that influence the acquisition and use of technical resources;

  • participate in international trade negotiations, environmental treaty discussions, and other types of policy dialogues involving technical issues of political, economic, and social importance;

  • conduct programs that heighten public awareness of the potential and limitations of modern technologies to improve the well-being of the public; and

  • develop an appropriate physical infrastructure, a robust human resource base, and a network of educational and training institutions to support the foregoing activities.2

Within this broad context, the primary focus of this report is on research, development, S&T services, and technology transfer and on the S&T dimensions of higher education.


National Research Council, The Fundamental Role of Science and Technology in International Development, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2006, p. 18.


Ibid., pp. 18-19.

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