proaches, particularly with a view to promoting inter-disciplinary and inter-technological research and attracting foreign world-class experts to Kazakhstan.

F) Research institutes should seek more external research funding in order to increase its share in supporting their research and development activities. The ministries and the research institutes must improve the management of their research funding and the standardization of cost calculations in order to ensure that the real costs of their activities can be appropriately monitored and accurately calculated in assessing financial needs.

G) Universities need to improve their international competitiveness by improving the focus of their activities and by investing in improving the quality of research, expanding inter-disciplinary activities, and recruiting research personnel who can perform at an international level.

The Committee on Science within the Ministry of Education and Science has recently been established.

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