wave devices and is the author or coauthor of two books and many papers. He also serves as an adviser to various government agencies. In addition to involvement in several other scientific organizations, he is a fellow of the American Physical Society, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and the AAAS and is a member of the American Nuclear Society.

Dr. Clifford Gaddy holds a Ph.D. in economics from Duke University. He has previously been a visiting professor of economics at Johns Hopkins University and an adjunct professor in the Department of Economics and the Center for Eurasian, Russian, and East European Studies at Georgetown University. In 1996-1997 he served as an adviser on issues of fiscal federalism for the U.S. government’s Tax Reform Oversight Project for Russia. Dr. Gaddy is coauthor (with Barry W. Ickes, Pennsylvania State University) of a forthcoming Brookings Institution book, Russia’s Virtual Economy, which analyzes the nature and evolution of the postcommunist economic system in Russia. An earlier book, The Price of the Past: Russia’s Struggle with the Legacy of a Militarized Economy (Brookings Institution, 1996), was awarded the 1997 prize of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies as the year’s best book on the political economy of the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe.

Dr. Norman P. Neureiter is director of the Center for Science, Technology, and Security Policy at the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He retired in September 2003 from the post of science and technology adviser to the Secretary of State upon the completion of his three-year term of service. Previously, he was vice president of Texas Instruments Asia. While there he held a number of positions, including director of East-West Business Development, manager of International Business Development, manager of the TI Europe Division, and director TI-Japan. During a five-year residency in Tokyo, he was an active participant in negotiation and implementation of the U.S.-Japan Semiconductor Trade Agreement. Prior to his work with private industry, Dr. Neureiter worked as an international affairs assistant in the White House Office of Science and Technology during 1969-1973, reporting to the president’s science adviser. Dr. Neureiter entered the U.S. Foreign Service in 1965, serving as deputy science attache with the U.S. embassy in Bonn, Germany. From 1967 to 1969, he was the first U.S. science attache in eastern Europe, based at the U.S. embassy in Warsaw, with responsibility for Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Poland.

Dr. Marilyn L. Pifer is senior program manager and senior technical advisor at the U.S. Civilian Research & Development Foundation. Since 2001 she has served as senior manager of the Basic Research and Higher Education Program. Prior to joining the foundation, Dr. Pifer served twice in the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, with responsibility for science cooperation in Russia and in South Asia and

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