PREVENTING TEEN MOTOR CRASHES

CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES

WORKSHOP REPORT

Program Committee for a Workshop on Contributions from the Behavioral and Social Sciences in Reducing and Preventing Teen Motor Crashes

Board on Children, Youth, and Families

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Institute of Medicine and the

Transportation Research Board

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL, INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE, AND

TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BORD OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
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PREVENTING TEEN MOTOR CRASHES CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES WORKSHOP REPORT Program Committee for a Workshop on Contributions from the Behavioral and Social Sciences in Reducing and Preventing Teen Motor Crashes Board on Children, Youth, and Families Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Institute of Medicine and the Transportation Research Board

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Award Nos. N01-OD-4-2139, 200-2000-00629, and UPVT-7578 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the State Farm Insurance Companies®. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 13: 978-0-309-10401-2 International Standard Book Number 10: 0-309-10401-7 Additional copies of this report are available from The National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Suggested citation: National Research Council, Institute of Medicine, and Transporta- tion Research Board. (2007). Preventing Teen Motor Crashes: Contributions from the Be- havioral and Social Sciences, Workshop Report. Program Committee for a Workshop on Contributions from the Behavioral and Social Sciences in Reducing and Preventing Teen Motor Crashes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal govern- ment. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the supe- rior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sci- ences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the ex- amination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is presi- dent of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the Na- tional Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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PROGRAM COMMITTEE FOR A WORKSHOP ON CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES IN REDUCING AND PREVENTING TEEN MOTOR CRASHES ROBERT GRAHAM (Chair), Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati BRIAN K. BARBER, Department of Child and Family Studies, University of Tennessee, Knoxville CLAIRE D. BRINDIS, National Adolescent Health Information Center, University of California, San Francisco B. BRADFORD BROWN, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Wisconsin–Madison WILLIAM DEJONG, School of Public Health, Boston University DONALD L. FISHER, Human Performance Laboratory, University of Massachusetts, Amherst BONNIE L. HALPERN-FELSHER, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco DANIEL P. KEATING, Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor JOHN D. LEE, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City DANIEL R. MAYHEW, Traffic Injury Research Foundation, Ottawa, Ontario CAROL W. RUNYAN, Injury Prevention Research Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill JEAN THATCHER SHOPE, Transportation Research Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor ALLAN F. WILLIAMS, consultant, Bethesda, Maryland FLAURA KOPLIN WINSTON, Center for Injury Research and Prevention, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia ALEXANDRA BEATTY, Rapporteur JENNIFER APPLETON GOOTMAN, Study Director APRIL HIGGINS, Senior Program Assistant WENDY KEENAN, Program Associate RICK PAIN, Transportation Safety Coordinator v

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BOARD ON CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND FAMILIES MICHAEL I. COHEN (Chair), Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine BARBARA WOLFE (Vice Chair), Department of Economics and Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin–Madison WILLIAM BEARDSLEE, Department of Psychiatry, Children’s Hospital, Boston P. LINDSAY CHASE-LANSDALE, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University THOMAS DeWITT, Division of General and Community Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center MARY JANE ENGLAND, Office of the President, Regis College BRENDA ESKENAZI, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley CHRISTINE C. FERGUSON, School of Public Health and Health Services, George Washington University NEAL HALFON, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles SUSAN MILLSTEIN, Division of Adolescent Medicine, University of California, San Francisco ELENA NIGHTINGALE, Institute of Medicine, The National Academies, Washington, DC LAURENCE STEINBERG, Department of Psychology, Temple University ELLEN WARTELLA, Office of the Executive Vice Chancellor and Provost, University of California, Riverside ROSEMARY CHALK, Board Director WENDY KEENAN, Program Associate vi

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2006 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* Chair: MICHAEL D. MEYER, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Vice Chair: LINDA S. WATSON, LYNX–Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Executive Director: ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR., Transportation Research Board MICHAEL W. BEHRENS, Texas Department of Transportation, Austin ALLEN D. BIEHLER, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Harrisburg JOHN D. BOWE, APL Americas, Oakland, California LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Mississippi Department of Transportation, Jackson DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Customer Service, Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries, Atlanta ANNE P. CANBY, Surface Transportation Policy Project, Washington, DC DOUGLAS G. DUNCAN, FedEx Freight, Memphis, Tennessee NICHOLAS J. GARBER, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville ANGELA GITTENS, Airport Business Services, HNTB Corporation, Miami GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, School of Policy, Planning, and Development, and METRANS National Center for Metropolitan Transportation Research, University of Southern California, Los Angeles SUSAN HANSON, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University JAMES R. HERTWIG, CSX Intermodal, Jacksonville, Florida GLORIA J. JEFF, City of Los Angeles Department of Transportation, California ADIB K. KANAFANI, Department of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley * Membership as of August 2006. vii

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HAROLD E. LINNENKOHL, Georgia Department of Transportation, Atlanta SUE MCNEIL, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark DEBRA L. MILLER, Kansas Department of Transportation, Topeka MICHAEL R. MORRIS, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington CAROL A. MURRAY, New Hampshire Department of Transportation, Concord JOHN R. NJORD, Utah Department of Transportation, Salt Lake City (Past Chair, 2005) PETE K. RAHN, Missouri Department of Transportation, Jefferson City SANDRA ROSENBLOOM, School of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson HENRY GERARD SCHWARTZ, JR., Washington University, St. Louis MICHAEL S. TOWNES, Hampton Roads Transit, Virginia (Past Chair, 2004) C. MICHAEL WALTON, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas, Austin viii

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Contents PREFACE xi 1 INTRODUCTION: A CRITICAL PUBLIC HEALTH PROBLEM 1 2 THE ANATOMY OF CRASHES INVOLVING YOUNG DRIVERS 6 The Gravest Public Health Problem for Young Drivers, 6 Risk Factors, 8 Common Teen Driving Errors, 14 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF ADOLESCENCE THAT CAN AFFECT DRIVING 16 Development—How Adolescents Differ from Adults, 16 Adolescent Decision Making, 18 The Important Role of Peers, 19 Sleep Deprivation, 21 The Social Context of Teen Driving, 23 4 STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE SAFETY 25 Current Strategies, 25 Strategies with Potential, 31 ix

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x CONTENTS 5 MOVING FORWARD 40 Need for Synthesis, Coordination, and Application, 40 Specific Research Needs, 43 Next Steps, 45 REFERENCES 46 APPENDIX: WORKSHOP AGENDA AND PARTICIPANTS 51

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Preface T he Board on Children, Youth, and Families (BCYF) of the Na- tional Research Council (NRC) and the Institute of Medicine has organized a series of planning meetings, workshops, and consen- sus studies over the past decade that address different facets of adolescent health and development (see the BCYF web site: www.bocyf.org). In the midst of this work, the board identified a significant omission: the work of researchers with new insights and understanding of teen risk behaviors and adolescent development in general had not yet been systematically applied to key policy, education, or practice questions related to the problem of teen crashes. Following a series of tragic deaths involving teen drivers and passengers in metropolitan Washington, DC, in October 2004, the Committee on Adolescent Health and Development reviewed the emerging research on teen driving. It concluded that the time was ripe to examine this work within a broad interdisciplinary forum involving experts from fields of study that had remained apart for too long. BCYF pursued this initiative in col- laboration with the Transportation Research Board of the National Acad- emies, which has a long and robust history of addressing highway safety through convening interdisciplinary conferences and workshops, identify- ing and sponsoring research, and influencing policy through studies in high- way safety conducted at the request of Congress and the executive branch. From this internal consultation emerged a proposal for a national work- shop that would bring together traffic safety experts with others from a xi

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xii PREFACE broad array of disciplines, including researchers who study adolescent health, injury prevention, public health, youth development, risk assess- ment, behavioral psychology, and other fields of social and behavioral study that examine interactions that influence today’s youth. The workshop was viewed as just a beginning—an opportunity for a diverse group to examine how research findings from a broad array of disciplines could be presented within an interdisciplinary framework and integrated in ways that could address a critical public health need, improve the quality of prevention strategies, and ultimately reduce teen motor vehicle crashes and save lives. This report, which summarizes what took place at the workshop, can serve only to introduce readers to the potential connections among work on adolescent development from the behavioral and social sciences and re- search findings from the fields of traffic safety and public health. It is not intended as a comprehensive summary of the existing body of literature on either teen driving or adolescent development, nor does it make any spe- cific recommendations. Instead, like the workshop itself, it is intended as a spur to further action. We greatly appreciate the public- and private-sector partnership that emerged to support this undertaking. The Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research in the National Institutes of Health, the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the State Farm Insurance Companies® sponsored the workshop project and provided technical assistance in key areas of in- terest. Particular acknowledgment is given to Bruce Simons-Morton from the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development, Ruth Shults from CDC, and John Nepomuceno from State Farm Insurance Companies®, each of whom offered guidance and encouragement during the formative stages of this activity. The two-day workshop summarized in this report was held at the Na- tional Academies in May 2006. The workshop made possible expert pre- sentation of new research findings from the social, behavioral, and health sciences, as well as opportunities to engage in broad interdisciplinary dia- logue about the implications of this research. Apart from the expertise of the speakers and members of the program committee, the participants in- cluded others with a wide array of expertise in traffic safety and adolescent health interests, as well as stakeholders concerned with improving the qual- ity of life for today’s youth—including parents whose lives have been touched by the tragedy of motor vehicle crash fatalities. It was difficult indeed to condense the rich array of research literature

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xiii PREFACE into a two-day program. We are particularly grateful for the contributions of the expert presenters who helped to structure the workshop program, as well as the other discussants and participants who contributed to the dis- cussions (see Appendix A for the workshop agenda and list of presenters). Many of the speakers and participants were eager to see additional activity emerge from this initial discussion; all welcomed the opportunity to meet with new colleagues and to reframe their work in a setting that encouraged moving beyond the traditional confines of disciplinary inquiry. Members of the program committee met once to plan and convene the workshop, and they met again immediately after the gathering to identify major themes to be presented in this summary report. In preparing the report, the workshop rapporteur, Alexandra Beatty, assisted in synthesizing the key points. Special appreciation also goes to members of the project staff, including Jennifer Appleton Gootman, study director; Rick Pain, transportation safety coordinator; and Wendy Keenan, program associate, who ably assisted with the organization of the meeting. This report summarizes the committee’s assessment of what transpired at the workshop and highlights some of the views expressed by workshop speakers or participants. While the committee is responsible for the overall quality and accuracy of the report as a record of what transpired at the workshop, the views of workshop participants whose comments are sum- marized are not necessarily those of the planning committee members. This workshop report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the Na- tional Research Council. The purpose of this independent review is to pro- vide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Susan S. Gallagher, Children’s Safety Network, Education Development Center, Newton, MA; Jay N. Giedd, Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist, Potomac, MD; Ricardo Martinez, Medical Affairs, The Schumacher Group, Kennesaw, GA; John W. Palmer, Health and Safety, St. Cloud State University; Dan Romer, Annenberg Public Policy Center, University of Pennsylvania; Teresa M. Senserrick, Center for Injury Research and Prevention, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia; and Jerry Wachtel, Office of the President, The Veridian Group, Inc., Berkeley, CA.

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xiv PREFACE Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Laurence Steinberg, Department of Psychology, Temple University. Appointed by the National Research Coun- cil, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Rosemary Chalk, Director Board on Children, Youth, and Families