• search ahead, such as before left turns;

  • search to the side, such as when yielding the right of way at an intersection;

  • search to the rear, such as when changing lanes;

  • adjust speed in response to traffic or road conditions;

  • maintain space between their own and other vehicles, such as correct following distance;

  • respond correctly to emergencies, such as recovering from a skid or sudden swerve;

  • maintain basic control of the vehicle, such as keeping within a lane, braking, and turning smoothly;

  • respond to traffic controls, such as traffic lights or guidance about lane use; and

  • avoid driving while impaired by alcohol or sleepiness or driving a vehicle that needs repair.

McKnight offered a simplified summary of what teens need to learn to become successful drivers: knowledge of the rules of the road, safe operating procedures, and the consequences of not adhering to them; understanding that what they know and do will affect their safety; and the skill to control the car, handle an emergency, and recognize potential hazards in time to avoid them. As the conversation turned to intervention strategies, participants repeatedly stressed that remedies need to address these three elements in realistic ways. However, the information about risk factors and teen driver error goes only so far in explaining teen crashes—it does not address the reasons why teens often lack the critical elements. Thus, the workshop also explored the nature of adolescents and the developmental processes that they experience—with an eye to identifying ways in which this deeper knowledge could be applied to the development of more effective educational programs and prevention strategies for teen drivers.

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