Appendix B
Committee and Staff Biographies

MARK B. MYERS (Chair) retired from the Xerox Corporation at the beginning of 2000 after a 36-year career in its research and development organizations. He was the senior vice president in charge of corporate research, advanced development, systems architecture, and corporate engineering from 1992 to 2000. His responsibilities included the corporate research centers: PARC in Palo Alto, California; Webster Center for Research and Technology near Rochester, New York; Xerox Research Centre of Canada, Mississauga, Ontario; and the Xerox Research Centre of Europe in Cambridge, U.K., and Grenoble, France. Dr. Myers served on the National Academies Science, Technology, and Economic Policy Board from 1995 to 2005 and cochaired the board’s study of the patent system, resulting in the report A Patent System for the 21st Century. He is chairman of the Board of Trustees of Earlham College and has held visiting faculty positions at the Wharton School of Business, University of Rochester, and Stanford University. He holds a bachelor’s degree from Earlham College and a doctorate from Pennsylvania State University.


ERICH BLOCH is a principal of the Washington Advisory Group, a distinguished fellow at the Council on Competitiveness and a former NSF director. He is the only past director with an industrial background. As an IBM electrical engineer early in his career, Mr. Bloch was a key figure responsible for IBM’s STRETCH Computer Systems Engineering project and the development of the IBM 360. For his role in that system he was awarded the National Medal of Technology in 1985 and the IEEE Founders Medal. In his six-year term (1984-1990) as NSF director, Mr.



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Innovation Inducement Prizes: At the National Science Foundation Appendix B Committee and Staff Biographies MARK B. MYERS (Chair) retired from the Xerox Corporation at the beginning of 2000 after a 36-year career in its research and development organizations. He was the senior vice president in charge of corporate research, advanced development, systems architecture, and corporate engineering from 1992 to 2000. His responsibilities included the corporate research centers: PARC in Palo Alto, California; Webster Center for Research and Technology near Rochester, New York; Xerox Research Centre of Canada, Mississauga, Ontario; and the Xerox Research Centre of Europe in Cambridge, U.K., and Grenoble, France. Dr. Myers served on the National Academies Science, Technology, and Economic Policy Board from 1995 to 2005 and cochaired the board’s study of the patent system, resulting in the report A Patent System for the 21st Century. He is chairman of the Board of Trustees of Earlham College and has held visiting faculty positions at the Wharton School of Business, University of Rochester, and Stanford University. He holds a bachelor’s degree from Earlham College and a doctorate from Pennsylvania State University. ERICH BLOCH is a principal of the Washington Advisory Group, a distinguished fellow at the Council on Competitiveness and a former NSF director. He is the only past director with an industrial background. As an IBM electrical engineer early in his career, Mr. Bloch was a key figure responsible for IBM’s STRETCH Computer Systems Engineering project and the development of the IBM 360. For his role in that system he was awarded the National Medal of Technology in 1985 and the IEEE Founders Medal. In his six-year term (1984-1990) as NSF director, Mr.

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Innovation Inducement Prizes: At the National Science Foundation Bloch built national support for advances in high-performance computing and networking and led in transitioning the NSFNET to the commercialized Internet. He also established NSF’s Computer and Information Science and Engineering Directorate, the Engineering Research Centers program, and the Science and Technology Centers program. Mr. Bloch is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, the Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences, a fellow of IEEE, and a foreign member of the Engineering Academy of Japan. From 1992 to 1996 Mr. Bloch was chairman of the National Research Council’s Japan Affairs Committee. He received his education in electrical engineering at the Federal Polytechnic Institute of Zurich and earned a bachelor of science degree in electrical engineering from the University of Buffalo in 1952. STUART I. FELDMAN joined IBM in 1995 and is now vice president, computer science in IBM Research. He is responsible for driving the firm’s long-term exploratory worldwide science strategy in computer science and related fields, such as mathematics, management sciences, and social sciences. Dr. Feldman leads programs for adventurous research and university collaborations, represents computer science research at senior management levels in IBM, and is the technical leader of the Research Division’s solution engineering initiative. Earlier positions at IBM included vice president for on demand business transformation strategy in IBM Research, vice president for Internet technology and director of IBM’s Institute for Advance Commerce. Dr. Feldman did his academic work (A.B., Princeton, and Ph.D., MIT) in astrophysics and mathematics. He is a fellow of the IEEF and fellow and president of ACM, from which he received the Software System Award in 2003. In 2005 he received the Academy of Management Distinguished Executive Award. Before Joining IBM he was a computer science researcher at Bell Labs and a research manager at Bellcore. Dr. Feldman has taught e-commerce courses at Yale School of Management and is a consulting professor of information technology at Carnegie Mellon West. MERTON C. FLEMINGS is professor of materials science and engineering, and director of the Lemelson-MIT program, which honors inventors and encourages inventiveness among young people. He received his S.B. degree from MIT in the Department of Metallurgy in 1951 and his S.M. and Sc.D. degrees in 1952 and 1954, respectively. He has been a professor at MIT since 1956 and was head of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering from 1982 to 1995. Dr. Flemings was the founding director of the MIT Materials Processing Center. His research and teaching focus on engineering fundamentals of materials processing and on innovation of materials processing operations. He is a member of the National

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Innovation Inducement Prizes: At the National Science Foundation Academy of Engineering and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has worked closely with industry and on industrial problems throughout his professional career and currently serves on a number of corporate and technical advisory boards. CLAIRE GMACHL is an associate professor of electrical engineering at Princeton University and the director of the newly formed NSF Engineering Research Center on Mid-InfraRed Technologies for Health and the Environment (MIRTHE). Her research group is working on the development of new quantum devices, especially lasers, and their optimization for systems applications ranging from sensors to optical communications. Before joining the Princeton faculty, she worked at Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies. She is a 2005 MacArthur Fellow and was named one of Popular Science’s “Brilliant 10” young scientists in 2004. In 1996 she received the Solid State Physics Award from the Austrian Physical Society and the Christian Doppler Award. She is a member of the Austrian Physical Society, the Optical Society of America, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and has participated in the NAE’s Frontiers of Engineering program. Dr. Gmachl earned her Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the Technical University of Vienna, Austria. THOMAS A. KALIL is the special assistant to the chancellor for science and technology at the University of California, Berkeley, where he is responsible for developing major new multidisciplinary research and education initiatives at the intersection of information technology, nanotechnology, microsystems, and biology. He is also a senior fellow with the Center for American Progress. Previously, Mr. Kalil served as the deputy assistant to President Clinton for technology and economic policy, and the deputy director of the White House National Economic Council. He was the NEC’s “point person” on a wide range of technology and telecommunications issues, such as the liberalization of Cold War export controls, the allocation of spectrum for new wireless services, and investments in upgrading America’s high-tech workforce. He led a number of White House technology initiatives, such as the National Nanotechnology Initiative, the Next Generation Internet, and increasing funding for long-term information technology research. Prior to joining the White House, Mr. Kalil was a trade specialist at the Washington offices of Dewey Ballantine, where he represented the Semiconductor Industry Association on U.S.-Japan trade issues and technology policy. He also served as the principal staffer to Dr. Gordon E. Moore in his capacity as chair of the SIA Technology Committee. Mr. Kalil received a B.A. in political science and

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Innovation Inducement Prizes: At the National Science Foundation international economics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and completed graduate work at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. DAVIS MASTEN is a principal at Cheskin Associates, a strategic consultancy in marketing and design research and innovation. His clients for projects in retail, packaging, interactive environments, corporate positioning, branding, and industrial design range from Pepsi and Hershey Foods to Microsoft and Hewlett Packard. Holding degrees in business and psychology, Mr. Masten joined Cheskin Associates Inc. in 1975, working closely with founder and market research pioneer, Louis Cheskin. Mr. Masten is a member of the National Academies’ Presidents’ Circle and assumed its chairmanship in 2007. KAREN E. NELSON was born in Jamaica and migrated to the United States, where she completed a Ph.D. in microbiology at Cornell University. For the past 10 years she has worked at the Institute for Genomic Research in Rockville, Maryland, where she has been involved in the whole genome sequencing and analysis of numerous microbial species including Thermotoga maritima, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes and Salinibacter ruber. In addition, she has led a number of metagenomics projects to analyze the human oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and the rumen. Dr. Nelson has been involved in many outreach projects with minority institutions and is currently employed at Howard University in Washington, D.C. She is also editor in chief of Microbial Ecology. Dr. Nelson was one of the microbiologists featured in a TV series called Intimate Strangers: Unseen Life on Earth, which appeared on PBS in 1999. RICHARD G. NEWELL is a senior fellow at Resources for the Future, an independent nonprofit and nonpartisan research institution. Dr. Newell’s research and outreach efforts center on the economics of markets and policies for energy and related technologies, particularly the cost and effectiveness of alternatives for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and achieving other environmental and energy goals. Economic analysis of market-based policies, technology policies, and the influence of markets and policy on technology innovation and adoption are important themes in his work. During 2005-2006 he served as senior economist for energy and environment at the President’s Council of Economic Advisers. He has served as an independent expert advisor, reviewer, and consultant for many public and private institutions. Currently he is an advisor to the National Commission on Energy Policy and a member of the National Research Council’s Committee on Energy R&D and the Advisory Board of the Automotive X-Prize and the editorial board of the journal Energy Economics. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard University,

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Innovation Inducement Prizes: At the National Science Foundation master’s degree from Princeton’s Woodrow Wilson School of Pubic and International Affairs, and undergraduate degrees in engineering and philosophy from Rutgers University. PETER M. RENTZEPIS was born in Kalamata, Greece, and was educated at Cambridge University, England, where he received his Ph.D. He was on the research staff and then became head of chemistry at Bell Laboratories. He subsequently was appointed Presidential Chair and professor of chemistry and electrical and computer engineering at the University of California, Irvine, where he serves currently. Professor Rentzepis is a pioneer of ultrafast, picosecond, and subpicosecond methods for the study of ultrafast phenomena. He is the first scientist to measure and use these pulses for scientific research and the study of processes in chemistry, physics, and biology occurring in the 10-12 seconds (trillionth of a second) or less. He has received over 25 national and international awards for his research, including the Langmuir Award in Chemical Physics, Tolman Medal in Chemistry, Cressy Morrison Award in Natural Sciences, Peter Debye Award in Physical Chemistry, and the ISCO Award for Biological Sciences. He is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Athenian Academy. SUZANNE SCOTCHMER is professor of economics and public policy at the University of California, Berkeley; she has also taught at Harvard University. Her graduate degrees are in economics and statistics. She has held visiting appointments at the University of Auckland, University of Cergy-Pontoise (Paris), Tel Aviv University, University of Paris I (Sorbonne), Boalt School of Law, University of Toronto Law School, Yale University, Stanford University, and the New School of Economics, Moscow. She has published on intellectual property law, rules of evidence, tax enforcement, cooperative game theory, club theory, and evolutionary game theory. She has served on committees of the National Research Council and is currently a member of the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy. The Department of Justice Antitrust Division has used Dr. Scotchmer as a consultant on antitrust matters, and she has been a scholar in residence at the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. MARGARET STEINBUGLER is manager of the Transportation Fuel Cell Systems program at UTC Fuel Cells. Her research interests are in the design of PEM fuel cell systems for high reliability, durability, operability, and low cost. She has published several papers in the areas of fuel cell systems and hydrogen studies and has been awarded several patents in fuel cell systems. She earned degrees in chemical and mechanical and aerospace engineering from Princeton University.

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Innovation Inducement Prizes: At the National Science Foundation STAFF STEPHEN A. MERRILL (Study Director) has been executive director of the National Academies’ Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy (STEP) since its formation in 1991. He has directed several STEP Board projects in the areas of intellectual property, technical standards, taxation, human resources, and statistical as well as research and development policies. For his work on the report A Patent System for the 21st Century (2004) he was named one of the 50 most influential people worldwide in the intellectual property field by Managing Intellectual Property magazine and was awarded the National Academies’ Distinguished Service Award in 2005. Prior to his appointment to the National Academies staff, Dr. Merrill was a fellow in international business at the Center for Strategic and International Studies and served on various congressional staffs, including that of the Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee, where he organized the first congressional hearings on international competition in the semiconductor and biotechnology industries. He holds degrees in political science from Yale (M.A., Ph.D.), Oxford (M. Phil.), and Columbia (B. A.) universities. CHRISTOPHER T. HILL is professor of public policy and technology at George Mason University, where he also served for eight years as vice provost for research. He is a principal in the consulting firm, Technology Policy International, where he has advised Japanese government agencies. Dr. Hill has served as a senior staff member at RAND’s Critical Technologies Institute, the Center for Policy Alternatives at MIT, and the National Academies, where he was executive director of the Manufacturing Forum. He was senior specialist in science and technology policy at the Congressional Research Service and was on the staff of the Office of Technology Assessment. During 2005-2006 he was a public policy scholar at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, where he began work on a book on the foundations of U.S. technology policy. PROCTOR REID is director of the Program Office of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), which he joined as an NAE fellow in 1988. He has directed numerous projects on issues related to technology, trade, and economic growth. He was project director for the 1999 NAE report Concerning Federally Sponsored Inducement Prizes in Engineering and Science and currently is administering the 2007 Grainger (Foundation) Challenge Prize for the best means of removing arsenic from underground drinking water in developing countries. Dr. Reid received his Ph.D. in international relations from the Johns Hopkins University Paul Nitze School of Advanced International Studies.

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Innovation Inducement Prizes: At the National Science Foundation BENJAMIN ROBERTS served with the National Academies’ Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy as a Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy fellow in the summer of 2006. He is a graduate of Carleton College and the University of Michigan School of Law. He was an attorney with the Hawaii Department of the Attorney General before returning to the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, where he is completing an M.P.P degree. MAHENDRA SHUNMOOGAM received a B. Soc. Sc. in political science and governance from the University of Cape Town, South Africa. He pursued legal studies at the University of the Western Cape and worked for the premier of the Western Cape Province, in documentary filmmaking, and for the South African Treatment Action Campaign before coming to the United States. He joined the staff of the National Academies’ Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy in June 2006.

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