Measurement (GCOS)a

Strategy

Current Status

Follow-on (2010–2020)

RFI Responseb

Permafrost, seasonally frozen ground (3)

 

 

 

 

Snow cover (and snow water equivalent) (3)

Radars combined with microwave radiometers

Combination of area, roughness, topography to provide snow-water equivalent

RADARSAT 1 (1995), RADARSAT 2 (2007), data commercially available

No planned follow-on

10, 14, 19, 56

Groundwater (3)

Microwave imagers

Soil moisture except for areas covered by ice-snow and heavily forested areas

SSM/I on DMSP (1995, 1997, 1999) AMSRE on Aqua (2002)

CMIS on NPOESS

19, 96

 

Gravity satellite

Large-scale groundwater (requires in situ auxiliary observations)

GRACE (2003)

GRACE follow-on

 

Lake levels (3)

High-resolution multispectral imagery

Lake areas

Landsat 7 (1999)

LDCM

 

 

Radars

Lake area

RADARSAT 1 (1995), RADARSAT 2 (2007), data commercially available

No planned follow-on

 

 

Lidar

Water-surface elevation

GLAS on ICESat (2003)

Mission 1

 

River discharge (3)

High-resolution imagery

Lake, river areas

Landsat 7 (1999)

LDCM

 

 

Lidar altimeter

River levels

ICESat (2002)

Mission 1

 

 

Radar

Lake, river areas

RADARSAT 1 (1995), RADARSAT 2 (2007), data commercially available

No planned follow-on

 

Leaf-area index (LAI) (3)

Multispectral imagers

Vegetation index

AVHRR, data since 1981 (NOAA 6), currently on NOAA 16, 17, 18

MODIS on Terra (2000), Aqua (2002)

MISR on Terra (2000)

SeaWiFS (1997)

VIIRS on NPP (2008)

VIIRS on NPOESS

 

 

High-spatial-resolution multispectral imagers

Vegetation index at higher spatial resolution

Landsat 7 (1999)

ASTER on Terra (2000)

EO-1

LDCM

Mission 1

 

Sea level

Altimeter

Ocean sea-level height

Jason 1 (2001) GFO

ALT on NPOESS

Mission 4

GRACE follow-on

56

 

SAR radars

Area of coastal zones

RADARSAT 1 (1995), RADARSAT 2 (2007), data commercially available

None

 



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