Measurement (GCOS)a

Strategy

Current Status

Follow-on (2010–2020)

RFI Responseb

Sea state (2.1), surface wind (1.1)

Microwave imagers

Surface windspeed

SSM/I on DMSP (1995, 1997, 1999)

AMSR-E on Aqua (2002)

CMIS on NPOESS

56, 98

 

Scatterometer

Surface wind vector

QuikSCAT (1999)

ASCAT on MetOp)

ASCAT (MetOp)

Mission 4

 

Ocean color (2.1)

Multispectral imagers with UV-blue capabilities

Surface-leaving radiances

SeaWiFS (1997)

MODIS on Terra (2000), Aqua (2002)

VIIRS on NPP (2009), and NPOESS

21, 86

Ocean surface (2.1) and sub-surface temperature (2.2)

Multispectral imagery

Sea-surface temperature

AVHRR, data since 1981 (NOAA 7), currently on NOAA 16, 17, 18

VIRS on TRMM (1997)

MODIS on Terra (2000), Aqua (2002)

VIIRS on NPP (2009), and NPOESS

 

 

Infrared-microwave sounders

Sea-surface temperature

AVHRR on NOAA 16, 17, 18

AIRS, AMSR-E on Aqua (2002)

MODIS on Aqua (2002), Terra (1999)

MODIS

CrIS/ATMS on NPP (2009), CMIS on NPOESS

 

 

Expendable profiling floats

Profiles of temperature, temperature at depth of neutral buoyancy, surface

ARGO floats

 

 

Ocean surface (2.1), subsurface salinity (2.2)

Microwave radiometer and scatterometer

Surface salinity, ocean roughness

 

AQUARIUS (2010)

 

 

Expendable profiling floats

Profiles of salinity, salinity at depth of neutral buoyancy

ARGO floats

 

 

Ocean surface (2.1), subsurface currents (2.2)

Altimeter

Ocean-surface height from which currents derived

Jason 1 (2001)

ALT on NPOESS

Mission 4

 

 

Gravity satellite

Subsurface or barotropic mass shifts (computed in conjunction with surface altimeter measurements)

GRACE (2002)

GRACE follow-on

 

 

Expendable profiling floats

Position drift at depth of neutral buoyancy (and surface with some caveats)

ARGO floats

 

 

Subsurface phytoplankton (2.2)

 

 

 

 

Precipitation (1.1)

Microwave imagers

Rainfall rate over oceans

SSM/I on DMSP (1995, 1997, 1999)

TMI on TRMM (1997)

AMSR-E on Aqua (2002)

CMIS on NPOESS, GPM (2012)

 

 

Precipitation radar

Vertical structure of rain rates

TRMM (1997)

GPM (2012)

 

 

Cloud radar

Rate for light drizzle

CloudSat (2006)

Mission 1

 

aNumbers in parentheses refer to the essential climate variables listed in Appendix 1 of CGOS (2003).

bAn indexed list of RFI responses is given in Appendix E.



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