reflected in the implementation of IT systems. Introducing distributed networks and applications—and the organizational and cultural innovations necessary to leverage them—constitutes a major challenge for making use of advances in IT.

The dependence on models for rapid initial deployment is an especially striking aspect of this scenario. Aggregating the status information from FEMA, DHS, the Red Cross, DHHS, and DOD logistics and human resource systems is particularly difficult. Without a significant level of confidence in status information, managers cannot be sure that they know what impacts have occurred, what resources are needed, or what resources are responding. Models could also be valuable to responders and other on-the-scene personnel whose perspective might lead to insights not necessarily accessible to more distant emergency managers. However, this level of sharing is not typical. Also, modeling results are not often shared with lower-level personnel, who might be able to act more efficiently if they were. Finding ways to give more people access to modeling systems could yield significant benefits.

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