planning in the domain of information servers, knowledge representation, and human-machine communication. In 1983, he joined the faculty of USC’s Computer Science Department. He joined USC’s Information Sciences Institute (USC/ISI) in 1987, where he first worked on the Integrated Interfaces project, a multimedia presentation design system combining text, tables, maps, and other graphics. For almost 10 years he headed the Single Interface to Multiple Sources research group specializing in integration of heterogeneous databases and other information sources. Dr. Arens has been director of the Intelligent Systems Division, one of the largest artificial intelligence research laboratories in the United States, since 1999. Also, since 1999, he has been co-director of the DGRC. In 1999, together with two colleagues from ISI, he founded Fetch Technologies, a company that specializes in extracting data from Web sites. In 2002, he joined the Daniel J. Epstein Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering as a research professor. In 2003, Dr. Arens founded USC’s Center for Research on Unexpected Events, which he headed for its first year. Dr. Arens also was a part of the National Research Council’s Committee on Planning Meeting on Information Technology and the States: Public Policy and Public. He received his Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley.

Art Botterell is community warning system manager, Contra Costa County (California) Office of the Sheriff. He is an internationally recognized expert in emergency communications who has served on the front lines of some of the biggest national disasters in recent U.S. history. Former Federal Emergency Management Agency director James Lee Witt hailed him as a “national asset.” He has served as a consultant to the Department of Homeland Security and a number of other state, federal, and international organizations. He led the development of the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP)—the first international standard format for all-hazard public warning across multiple media. An experienced analyst, broadcast and multimedia producer, writer, and manager, Mr. Botterell studies the ways that communities use information technology to manage the effects of sudden change.

Timothy X. Brown is an associate professor at the University of Colorado, Boulder. He received his B.S. in physics from Pennsylvania State University and his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the California Institute of Technology in 1990, when he also joined the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In 1992 he joined Bell Communications Research. Since 1995 he has held a joint appointment with Electrical Engineering and Interdisciplinary Telecommunications at the University of Colorado, Boulder. Dr. Brown’s research interests include adaptive network control, machine learning, and

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