sensing and electronic readout. We believe that an integrated package of sensing and readout will emerge.

Biology may also enable us to fabricate materials, structures, and devices from the bottom up. Many believe that we will have to turn to biology for commercially viable nanomanufacturing. Catalysis and self-assembly have been mastered by biological systems like enzymes and viruses, respectively. These lessons are being applied to traditional solid-state electronics, and engineers are beginning to realize the possibilities.

To continue advancements in biomimetics, we must include these principles in undergraduate and graduate training programs. Many other countries are also awakening to this realization. Thus, the future technical base of our country will depend on how well the science and engineering departments in our universities encourage this interdisciplinary training.

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