D
Glossary

adhesion — an abnormal band of tissue that can grow in the body, typically as a side effect of surgery, and cause two adjoining bodies to stick together

adult stem cell — a type of undifferentiated cell found in children and adults that has the ability to divide indefinitely and to generate all the different cell types found in the organ from which it comes; it has been suggested that adult stem cells could be used to regenerate organs

androgen — any of the various male sex hormones, including testosterone

antibody — a protein used by the immune system to fight infection by identifying and helping to neutralize the infecting agents, such as bacteria or viruses

antral follicle — a follicle in the final stage before ovulation

ascites — an accumulation of fluid in the abdomen between the abdominal wall and the internal organs, that is, in the peritoneal cavity

aseptic — sterile; free of germs

assisted reproductive technology (ART) — a medical treatment for infertility, such as in vitro fertilization



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Assessing the Medical Risks of Human Oocyte Donation for Stem Cell Research: Workshop Report D Glossary adhesion — an abnormal band of tissue that can grow in the body, typically as a side effect of surgery, and cause two adjoining bodies to stick together adult stem cell — a type of undifferentiated cell found in children and adults that has the ability to divide indefinitely and to generate all the different cell types found in the organ from which it comes; it has been suggested that adult stem cells could be used to regenerate organs androgen — any of the various male sex hormones, including testosterone antibody — a protein used by the immune system to fight infection by identifying and helping to neutralize the infecting agents, such as bacteria or viruses antral follicle — a follicle in the final stage before ovulation ascites — an accumulation of fluid in the abdomen between the abdominal wall and the internal organs, that is, in the peritoneal cavity aseptic — sterile; free of germs assisted reproductive technology (ART) — a medical treatment for infertility, such as in vitro fertilization

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Assessing the Medical Risks of Human Oocyte Donation for Stem Cell Research: Workshop Report atresia — the process by which an immature follicle degenerates and is reabsorbed by the body blastocyst — an early-stage embryo containing between 50 and 150 cells; its inner cell mass often serves as the source for embryonic stem cells capnography — a technique for monitoring the levels of carbon dioxide being inhaled and exhaled, thus giving an indirect measure of blood carbon dioxide levels clomiphene — a fertility drug that acts by inhibiting the action of estrogen on the pituitary gland, stimulating the gland to release more follicle-stimulating hormone creatinine — a molecule formed in muscle tissue as a byproduct of the breakdown of creatine phosphate desaturation — a lowering of the oxygen content of the blood embryo — the product of a fertilized egg and its ongoing development from the time it implants itself in the uterus (at five to seven days after fertilization) until the eighth week of development, after which it is considered a fetus embryonic stem cell — a stem cell that can give rise to any type of cell in the body; it is derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an embryo that is four to five days into development endometrioma — a cyst in the ovary caused by the presence of endometrial tissue, that is, tissue similar to the lining of the uterus endometriosis — a medical condition caused by tissue like that of the lining of the uterus (endometrium) being found elsewhere in the body; the symptoms include internal bleeding, inflammation, formation of scar tissue, and interference with the normal functioning of the surrounding tissue

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Assessing the Medical Risks of Human Oocyte Donation for Stem Cell Research: Workshop Report estradiol — the major female sex hormone; it plays many roles, including serving as the trigger for the surge of luteinizing hormone that induces ovulation estrogen — any of various female sex hormones, including estradiol estrogen receptor — a protein on the surface of a cell or inside it that binds to an estrogen molecule and, in response to its presence, sets in motion various activities within the cell, such as the production of certain proteins fallopian tube — a thin tube that carries eggs from the ovaries to the uterus fertility drugs — generally speaking, any medication that increases fertility, but most often used to denote drugs that stimulate the development of follicles in the ovary follicle — the roughly spherical structure in the ovary that contains the oocyte follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) — a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that acts in the ovaries to stimulate the maturation of follicles follicular sac — a fluid-filled portion of the follicle that contains the oocyte gonadotropin — a general type of hormone secreted by the pituitary gland; specific types of gonadotropins include luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and human chorionic gonadotropin gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) — a hormone produced by the hypothalamus that triggers the release of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary gland gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist — a synthetic hormone designed to act on the same receptors that gonadotropin-releasing hormone acts on and thus to cause a similar effect

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Assessing the Medical Risks of Human Oocyte Donation for Stem Cell Research: Workshop Report hemoconcentration — a decrease in blood volume that leads to an increased concentration of red blood cells hormone — a substance that acts as chemical messenger in the body, being produced in one place and traveling through the bloodstream to trigger some action in another human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) — a hormone produced by the developing embryo to promote the development of the corpus luteum and, ultimately, to help prepare the lining of the uterus for the fetus; because of its chemical similarity to luteinizing hormone, it is often used during a course of ovarian stimulation to induce ovulation hyperstimulation — see ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome hypogastric artery — the main artery of the pelvis, supplying blood to the pelvic area, the buttocks, and the reproductive organs; also known as the internal iliac artery in vitro fertilization (IVF) — a technique used in infertility treatments and in research by which an egg is fertilized outside the body inhibin b — a hormone that inhibits the synthesis and secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone; it is thought to be released by a dominant follicle to cause the pituitary gland to produce less follicle-stimulating hormone and so cause competing follicles to stop growing inner cell mass — the group of cells on the inside of a blastocyst that contains the embryonic stem cells luteinizing hormone (LH) — a hormone produced by the pituitary gland that triggers ovulation when its levels spike meta-analysis — a technique for combining the data and results from a number of different studies addressing the same or similar questions and using those combined studies to come to a conclusion that can be more trustworthy than the results of any single one of the individual studies

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Assessing the Medical Risks of Human Oocyte Donation for Stem Cell Research: Workshop Report mittelschmerz — a lower abdominal or pelvic pain felt by some women midway through their menstrual cycle, or around the time of ovulation myoma — a type of tumor, the most common of which is the uterine fibroid, which grows in the uterus nociceptors —nerve endings in the skin, muscle, and internal organs that are responsible for the sensation of pain oocyte — the female germ cell that, after it matures, can be fertilized by a sperm cell to create an embryo; an ovum or egg before maturation ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) — a possible complication of ovarian stimulation; symptoms include increased ovarian size, nausea and vomiting, increased permeability of the blood vessels, leading to an accumulation of fluid in the abdomen, breathing difficulties, hemoconcentration, and, in the most severe cases, blood clots or kidney failure ovarian stimulation — the use of fertility drugs to rescue eggs that would otherwise be lost in a monthly cycle and cause an elevated number of mature eggs to be available in the ovary ovarian torsion — a situation in which the ovary twists around on itself, cutting off its blood supply ovulation — the rupture of a mature follicle and release of its egg paracervical block — a type of anesthesia sometimes used during childbirth that involves injecting a local anesthetic on either side of the cervix pelvic abscess — a collection of pus that forms in a cavity in the pelvic region in response to infection or the presence of a foreign object pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) — an inflammation of the female reproductive tract, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, caused by an infection and whose symptoms can include fever, ab-

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Assessing the Medical Risks of Human Oocyte Donation for Stem Cell Research: Workshop Report dominal pain, and abnormal discharge; it is the leading cause of sterility among women perineum — in females, the surface region between the pubic bones and the coccyx (tailbone), containing the vagina and the anus peritoneum — the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity peritonitis — an inflammation of the peritoneum pituitary apoplexy — a bleeding within the pituitary gland that can cause headache, confusion, and loss of consciousness pituitary gland — a gland at the base of the brain that secretes hormones that are involved in regulating a number of body functions, including growth, blood pressure, and the production of eggs polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) — an endocrine disorder characterized by multiple cysts in the ovaries, irregular or missing ovulation, and a higher-than-usual level of androgens primordial follicle — a follicle that has not begun development toward a mature follicle progesterone — a hormone that plays a number of roles in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy pulse oximetry — a technique for measuring the oxygenation of blood by passing infrared light through a finger, ear lobe, or other thin part of the anatomy somatic cell nuclear transfer — the process of taking the nucleus from a somatic cell (a cell other than a sperm or an egg cell) and putting it into an egg in place of the egg’s own nucleus; since a cell’s DNA is contained in its nucleus, an egg produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer has the genetic material from the donor of the somatic cell; the technique is used in stem cell research to create stem cells that are genetically identical to the donor

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Assessing the Medical Risks of Human Oocyte Donation for Stem Cell Research: Workshop Report stem cell — a primal cell that can divide indefinitely and that can differentiate into a number of different types of cells stem cell therapy — the use of stem cells to treat disease or injury; medical researchers believe that stem-cell-based treatments have the potential to treat a large number of diseases, including chronic heart disease, Type I diabetes, and Parkinson’s disease, as well as many types of injuries, such as spinal cord damage, the brain damage caused by a stroke, and the damage to heart muscles caused by a heart attack. tamponade — an absorbent dressing used to stop bleeding thrombophilia — an increased tendency to develop blood clots torsion — see ovarian torsion transvaginal probe — an instrument used to retrieve eggs from the ovary ureter — one of the ducts that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder

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