GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH IN THE 21ST CENTURY

FROM GOVERNMENTAL REGULATION TO CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

WORKSHOP SUMMARY

Myron Harrison and Christine Coussens, Rapporteurs

Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine

Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century: From Governmental Regulation to Corporate Social Responsibility - Workshop Summary GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH IN THE 21ST CENTURY FROM GOVERNMENTAL REGULATION TO CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY WORKSHOP SUMMARY Myron Harrison and Christine Coussens, Rapporteurs Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century: From Governmental Regulation to Corporate Social Responsibility - Workshop Summary THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this project was provided by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health (Contract N01-OD-4-2193, TO#43); National Center for Environmental Health and Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Contract No. 200-2000-00629, TO#7); National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Contract 0000166930); National Health and Environment Effects Research Laboratory and National Center for Environmental Research, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Contract 282-99-0045, TO#5); American Chemistry Council (unnumbered grant); ExxonMobil Corporation (unnumbered grant); and Institute for Public Health and Water Research (unnumbered grant). The views presented in this book are those of the individual presenters and are not necessarily those of the funding agencies or the Institute of Medicine. This summary is based on the proceedings of a workshop that was sponsored by the Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine. It is prepared in the form of a workshop summary by and in the names of the editors, with the assistance of staff and consultants, as an individually authored document. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-10380-0 International Standard Book Number-10 0-309-10380-0 Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Box 285, Washington, DC 20055. Call (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at www.iom.edu. Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.

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Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century: From Governmental Regulation to Corporate Social Responsibility - Workshop Summary “Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Willing is not enough; we must do.” —Goethe INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advising the Nation. Improving Health.

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Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century: From Governmental Regulation to Corporate Social Responsibility - Workshop Summary THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century: From Governmental Regulation to Corporate Social Responsibility - Workshop Summary ROUNDTABLE ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES, RESEARCH, AND MEDICINE Paul Grant Rogers (Chair), Partner, Hogan & Hartson, Washington, D.C. Lynn Goldman (Vice-chair), Professor, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD Jacqueline Agnew, Professor, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD Jack Azar, (Roundtable member until December 2004), Vice President, Environment, Health and Safety, Xerox Corporation, Webster, NY John Balbus, Director of Health Program, Environmental Defense, Washington, D.C. Roger Bulger, Advisor to the Director, National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD Yank D. Coble, Immediate Past President, World Medical Association, Neptune Beach, FL Henry Falk, Director, Coordinating Center for Environmental and Occupational Health and Injury Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (NCEH/ATSDR), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA Baruch Fischhoff, Howard Heinz University Professor, Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA John Froines, Professor and Director, Center for Occupational and Environmental Health, Southern California Particle Center and Supersite, University of California, Los Angeles Howard Frumkin, Director, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (NCEH/ATSDR), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA Michael Gallo (Roundtable member until December 2005), Professor, Environmental and Community Medicine, Director, NIEHS Center of Excellence, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry, Princeton, NJ Paul Glover, Director General, Safe Environments Programme, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario Bernard Goldstein, Professor, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA Charles Groat, (Roundtable member until August 2005), Director, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA Myron Harrison, Senior Health Adviser, ExxonMobil, Inc., Irving, TX Carol Henry, Acting Vice President for Industry Performance Programs, American Chemistry Council, Arlington, VA

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Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century: From Governmental Regulation to Corporate Social Responsibility - Workshop Summary John Howard, Director, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Washington, D.C. Peter Illig, Consultant, Association Internationale pour l’ Ostéosynthèse Dynamique, Trauma Care Institute, Nice, France Richard Jackson, Adjunct Professor, Environmental Health Services Division, University of California at Berkeley Lovell Jones, Director, Center for Research on Minority Health, and Professor, Gynecologic Oncology, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston Alexis Karolides, Senior Research Associate, Rocky Mountain Institute, Snowmass, CO Fred Krupp (Roundtable member until December 2005), President, Environmental Defense, New York, NY Patrick Leahy, Acting Director, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA Donald Mattison, Senior Advisor to the Directors of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and Center for Research for Mothers and Children, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD Michael McGinnis (Roundtable member until December 2004), Senior Vice President, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Princeton, NJ James Melius, Administrator, New York State Laborers’ Health and Safety Fund, Albany James Merchant, Professor and Dean, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City Sanford Miller (Roundtable member until December 2004), Senior Fellow, Center for Food and Nutrition Policy, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Alexandria, VA Dick Morgenstern, Senior Fellow, Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. Alan R. Nelson (Roundtable member until December 2005), Special Advisor to the CEO, American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, Fairfax, VA Kenneth Olden (Roundtable member until December 2005), Director, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC John Porretto, President, Sustainable Business Solutions, Dewees Island, SC Peter W. Preuss (Roundtable member until December 2005), Director, National Center for Environmental Research, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. Lawrence Reiter, Director, National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC Carlos Santos-Burgoa, General Director for Equity and Health, Secretaria de Salud de Mexico, Mexico D.F. David Schwartz, Director, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC

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Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century: From Governmental Regulation to Corporate Social Responsibility - Workshop Summary Michael Shannon (Roundtable member until December 2005), Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Clinical Director, Pediatric Environmental Health Center, Children’s Hospital Boston, MA Jennie Ward-Robinson, Executive Director, Institute for Public Health and Water Research, Chicago, IL Samuel Wilson, Deputy Director, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC Harold Zenick, Acting Director, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC Study Staff Christine M. Coussens, Study Director Dalia Gilbert, Research Associate Erin McCarville, Senior Project Assistant (until May 2005) Jenners Foe-Parker, Intern (Fall 2004) David Tollerud, Project Assistant (from October 2006) Division Staff Rose Marie Martinez, Board Director Hope Hare, Administrative Assistant Christie Bell, Financial Associate

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Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century: From Governmental Regulation to Corporate Social Responsibility - Workshop Summary Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Margaret A. Breida, Senior Manager, Standards and Technical Groups, American Industrial Hygiene Association, Fairfax, VA Dennis Devlin, Director of Toxicology and Environmental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Sciences, ExxonMobil Corporation, Annandale, NJ Katherine Herz, International Life Sciences Institute, Washington, DC Leyla McCurdy, Senior Director of Health and Environment, National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, Washington, DC Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Melvin H. Worth, M.D., Scholar-in-Residence, Institute of Medicine, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century: From Governmental Regulation to Corporate Social Responsibility - Workshop Summary Contents     PREFACE   xv     SUMMARY   1      What Are Environmental Management Systems?,   1      The Environmental Impact of Environmental Management Systems,   2      Using Environmental Management Systems to Improve Performance in the Chemical Industry,   2      Green Chemistry,   3      Industry Volunteerism,   4      Global Implication of Environmental Standards,   4      Global Corporate Policies on Health, Safety, and the Environment,   5      The REACH Initiative,   6      Working with REACH: Practical Observations,   6      Canadian Environmental Protection Act,   7      U.S. Approach to Regulation: The Toxic Substance Control Act and Public Health,   8      International Cooperation on Regulatory Issues,   9      Industry’s Contribution to Improving the Global Community’s Health,   9      Corporate Social Responsibility,   10     INTRODUCTION   13      Charge to Speakers and Participants,   13      Traditional View and Evolving Definition of Environmental Health,   13      Environmental Health: New Challenges, New Strategies,   14      Five Workshop Objectives,   16

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Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century: From Governmental Regulation to Corporate Social Responsibility - Workshop Summary 1   TOOLS FOR MONITORING ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH   17      Environmental Management Systems,   17      Best Practices,   18      Environmental Management Systems in Practice,   20      Lessons Learned,   21      Promise for the Future,   23      The Environmental Impact of Environmental Management Systems: Findings from the Literature,   23 2   MOVING BEYOND COMPLIANCE: CAN INDUSTRY GET AHEAD OF THE CURVE?   26      Using Management Systems to Improve Performance in the Chemical Industry,   26      Relationship Between ISO 14001 and Responsible Care®,   28      Responsible Care® on the Global Stage,   28      The Implication of Technology for Environmental Health,   29      Environmental Impact of Telework,   29      Challenges of Telework,   29      Cradle to Grave: Upstream Sources,   30      Outsourcing of Manufacturing,   31      Embracing Sustainable Development: Green Chemistry,   32      Green Chemistry,   32      Analyzing Risk Prior to Production,   34      Milestones of Environmental Health and Safety Management in the Chemical Industry,   35      Federal Regulations That Help Ensure Chemical Safety,   36      Chemical Industry’s Product Stewardship and Trends of Public Expectations,   37      Industry’s Response to Challenges,   39      Voluntary Programs: Challenges and Needs,   40      Overview of High Production Volume (HPV) Program,   40      Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Screening Information Data Set (SIDS) Program,   42      Voluntary Children’s Chemical Evaluation Program (VCCEP),   42 3   GLOBAL IMPLICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS   44      Balancing Risk Assessment with the Realities of Uncertainty,   44      Global Corporate Policies on Health, Safety, and the Environment,   47      How to Prevent Double Standards Around the World?,   48      The Reach Initiative,   48      Working with REACH: Practical Observations,   51      The Canadian Environmental Protection Act: Tiered Approach Toward Regulation,   55

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Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century: From Governmental Regulation to Corporate Social Responsibility - Workshop Summary      CEPA Toxic,   56      Challenges of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act,   58      U.S. Approach to Regulation: The Toxic Substance Control Act and Public Health,   58      International Cooperation on Regulatory Issues: Strategic Approach to International Chemical Management,   61      Legacy Chemicals and Encouraging the Drive to Sustainability,   64 4   IMPROVING COMMUNITY HEALTH GLOBALLY   65      ExxonMobil: Environmental Health Performance Driven by Management Systems,   66      Health and Environment in Practice: Building of ExxonMobil’s Chad-Cameroon Project,   67      The Role of Local Government in the Implementation of the Safety, Health, and Environment Management System,   69      Lack of Capacity and Basic Infrastructure,   69      Individual and Community Compensation,   70      Local Employment and Business Opportunities,   70      Public Health Lessons Learned from the Chad-Cameroon Pipeline Project,   71      Community Health Outreach Program,   71      Malaria Prevention Program,   72      Ifakara Center,   72      Demographic Surveillance System,   74      Methods of Managing Corporate Social Responsibility,   74      Strategic Management of Environmental Health Management Systems,   76 5   CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY   78      Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility,   78      Millennium Development Goals,   79      The Role of International Organizations in Promoting Corporate Social Responsibility,   80      Challenges Ahead,   81      Corporate Social Responsibility in the Context of Regulation,   82      Legal Reform Strategies to Enhance Corporate Social Responsibility,   83      Corporate Social Responsibility: Roles of Government, the Private Sector, and Civil Society,   84      The Cause of Corporate Social Responsibility as a Phenomenon,   84      Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives and Law,   84      The Role of Governments in Corporate Social Responsibility,   87      The Role of the ISO Social Responsibility Standard,   87

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Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century: From Governmental Regulation to Corporate Social Responsibility - Workshop Summary 6   PANEL DISCUSSION   88      How Does Environmental Health Link with Corporate Social Responsibility?,   88      What Is Corporate Social Responsibility?,   89      The Need for Global Strategy,   90      Corporate Social Responsibility Meets Market Competitiveness,   90      Partnerships,   91      Environmental Management Systems,   92      EMS: Limitations,   92      Accountability and Evaluation,   93      How to Move from Management Systems to Health,   93      Challenge and Opportunities,   93      The Need to Share Best Practices,   94      Research,   94     REFERENCES   96     APPENDIXES     A   Workshop Agenda   99 B   Speakers and Panelists   106 C   Workshop Participants   108

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Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century: From Governmental Regulation to Corporate Social Responsibility - Workshop Summary Preface The Institute of Medicine’s Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine was established in 1988 as a mechanism for bringing various stakeholders together to discuss environmental health issues in a neutral setting. The members of the Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine come from academia, industry, and government. Their perspectives range widely and represent the diverse viewpoints of researchers, federal officials, and consumers. They meet to discuss environmental health issues that are of mutual interest (though sometimes very sensitive). The basis of these discussions illuminates both current and emerging issues for the field of environmental health. There is a growing awareness of significant environmental health issues, both domestically and worldwide. Scientists and policy makers are grappling with complex issues such as climate change, sustainability, and obesity—a diverse set of challenges that continue to have health impacts. Meeting these challenges requires dialogue from a number of stakeholders. The problems did not come from one activity, and the solutions are not going to come from one source (e.g., government or academia). Government alone clearly does not have the financial and other resources to solve all the health-related problems. Further gains in environmental health are going to be met through collaborations and partnerships. This does not mean that each stakeholder group needs to play a role in every problem, but we need to move forward collectively. This has been more apparent as disasters such as the tsunami in Indonesia, hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the Gulf Coast, and SARS. There is a need for stakeholders to bring their expertise to the table. In this workshop, the Institute of Medicine’s Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine discussed the role of industry in environmental health. The workshop looked at programs that work in concert with governmental regulations and tried to focus on how these programs can improve environmental health. One point that was made a number of times during the workshop is that we are going to need these programs at the global level. They are

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Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century: From Governmental Regulation to Corporate Social Responsibility - Workshop Summary needed because of the complexity of the societal problems; and in order to begin to address these issues, we are going to need input from all stakeholders. During the workshop, the Roundtable members, speakers, and participants focused some of their attention on the complexity of the management of chemicals. Each stakeholder group echoed the need for a sound management system, but the discussion focused on the details of the current and proposed systems for managing the use of chemicals in commerce. The challenge for any government entity is that over 70,000 chemicals are in use today. Understanding the potential health and environmental effects is a challenge for a developed country and not possible for developing countries that lack financial resources. As one speaker noted, regulations can spawn innovation. Thus it is clear that regulations are an important and necessary part of the plan to improve environmental health. However, regulations are only one part of the picture. There are many limitations to relying solely on governments and regulations. First, governments are limited to their own jurisdiction. On an international arena, there is reliance on treaties and agreements, but they are often difficult to enforce. Second, many governments lack the resources to continue to make gains in environmental health. Developing countries often do not have a stable government or tax base. Even developed countries have competing interest for the tax funding that makes funding of health projects infeasible. Finally, regulations take time to implement and do not incentivize companies to exceed the regulatory standards. This is especially true for the business community which has a global reach that transcends political boundaries. In this workshop, the Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine looked at some of the programs and challenges for engaging industry through the shareholders’ call for social responsibility. This summary captures the presentations and discussions of the workshop. The views expressed in this report are those of individual speakers and participants, and do not necessary reflect the views of the Institute of Medicine, the members of the Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine, or the sponsors of this activity. Paul G. Rogers Roundtable Chair