vidual and their representatives to allow and define uses of the specimens and data with regular feedback to the participants. Omenn suggested that to do that right, scientists need to learn from such examples as the community and scientific responses to Hurricane Katrina and other emergencies. We must learn, he emphasized, how to support on a continuing basis the local, state, and federal public health agencies. Otherwise we will be facing similar challenges, with even more chaos for the people involved, in the years ahead. Instead, we should be much better prepared, more knowledgeable, with better tools and better connected with the questions that people really want us to address during a disaster.