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appendix F Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff Janet L. Norwood (Chair) is a counselor and senior fellow at the Confer- ence Board, where she chairs the Advisory Committee on the Leading Indicators. From 1979 to 1992 she served as U.S. commissioner of labor statistics and was then a senior fellow at the Urban Institute until 1999. She is a past member of the Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT) and the Division of Engineering and Physical Sciences of the National Research Council. She currently serves on the Board of Scientific Counselors at the National Center for Health Statistics and was designated a national as- sociate of the National Research Council in 2001. She is a fellow and past president of the American Statistical Association, a member and past vice president of the International Statistical Institute, an honorary fellow of the Royal Statistical Society, and a fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration and the National Association of Business Economists. She has a B.A. from Rutgers University and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy of Tufts University. She has received honorary LL.D. degrees from Carnegie Mellon, Florida International, Har- vard, and Rutgers universities. William M. Arnold is director of International Government Relations for Shell Oil Company, where his team provides strategic guidance and advice for projects in approximately 40 countries. Previously he was senior inter- national advisor to the Coastal Capital Corporation with responsibilities that included preparing country analyses for executive use, liaising with export credit agencies and multilateral institutions for funding and risk mitigation. From 1983 to 1988 he was senior vice president of the Ex- 

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 APPENDIX F port Import Bank of the United States. His international banking experi- ence includes positions in the Latin America Division of Texas Commerce Bancshares, Inc. (now JPMorganChase), COMIND International Banking Corporation, a subsidiary of Banco do Commercio e Industria de Sao Paulo, Brazil, and First City National Bank. He has a B.A. in economics from Cornell University as well as an M.A. in Latin American Studies and an M.B.A. from the University of Texas at Austin. He completed gradu- ate studies on European economic integration at the Europa Instituut of the University of Amsterdam and the Graduate School of Banking at the University of Wisconsin. Lyle F. Bachman is professor and chair of the Department of Applied Linguistics and Teaching English as a Second Language in the Humanities Division at the University of California, Los Angeles. He serves as a con- sultant in language assessment and language program design, evaluation, and research to government agencies and institutions in Hong Kong, Korea, the United States, and the United Kingdom and is currently co-editor of the Cambridge University Press series, Language Assessment. His international experience includes Peace Corps service in the Philippines, six years in Thai- land as a project specialist for the Ford Foundation, three years at Tehran University in Iran, and two years at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. He is a past president of the American Association for Applied Linguistics and of the International Language Testing Association, was the first winner of the TESOL/Newbury House award for outstanding research, and has won the Modern Language Association of America’s Kenneth Mildenberger award for outstanding research publication twice. In 2004, he received a lifetime achievement award by the International Language Testing Associa- tion. He is currently a member of the National Research Council’s Board on Testing and Assessment. He has a Ph.D. from Indiana University. Burt S. Barnow is an economist, associate director for research, and princi- pal research scientist at the Institute for Policy Studies of the Johns Hopkins University. His work focuses on evaluating social programs, and he has conducted research and evaluations in the labor, welfare, and education fields. He also teaches program evaluation in the institute’s graduate public policy program as well as labor economics in the Department of Econom- ics. Before joining Johns Hopkins, he was vice president of a consulting firm in the Washington, DC, area. He served nine years in the Department of Labor, most recently as director of the Office of Research and Evalu- ation for the Employment and Training Administration. He is a member of the National Research Council’s Board on Higher Education and the Workforce and recently cochaired the Committee on Workforce Needs in Information Technology. He has a B.S. in economics from the Massachu-

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 INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES setts Institute of Technology and a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Sheila Biddle is an independent consultant in New York. The author of Internationalization: Rhetoric or Reality, a study of internationalization in U.S. universities published in 2003, she was a senior research scholar at Columbia University from 1996 to 2002, while she was completing the research and writing of the project. From 1982 to 1996, she was a program officer in the Ford Foundation’s Education and Culture Program, working in the field of higher education. With the former director, she developed and launched the Foundation’s Predissertation Fellowship Program, designed to encourage doctoral students in the social sciences to gain competence in an international or area studies field. She was also responsible for program- ming in African-American studies and for initiatives to increase the numbers of underrepresented minorities on college and universities faculties. She has served as a consultant on internationalization for a number of universities and organizations, including the Social Science Research Council, the Carn- egie Corporation, and Franklin A. Thomas, former president of the Ford Foundation, for a project on South Africa. She has a Ph.D. from Columbia University and taught in its history department for 13 years. Naomi Chudowsky (Senior Program Officer) is a senior program officer at the National Research Council, where she works on a variety of projects related to education and testing. She also conducts research on federal and state education policies for several national organizations. Her previous experience includes working on test development for President Clinton’s Voluntary National Testing Initiative at the U.S. Department of Educa- tion. She also served as project manager for Connecticut’s statewide high school assessment. She has a Ph.D. in educational psychology from Stan- ford University. Christopher T. Cross is chairman of Cross & Joftus, LLC, an education consulting firm. He has served as a senior fellow with the Center for Education Policy and as a distinguished senior fellow with the Education Commission of the States. From 1994 to 2002 he served as president and chief executive officer of the Council for Basic Education (CBE). Before joining CBE, he served as director of the education initiative of The Busi- ness Roundtable and as assistant secretary for educational research and improvement in the U.S. Department of Education. He chaired the National Assessment of Title 1 Independent Review Panel on Evaluation for the U.S. Department of Education from 1995 to 2001 and the National Research Council Panel on Minority Representation in Special Education from 1997 to 2002. In 2001, he completed a six-year term on the Board of Interna-

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 APPENDIX F tional Comparative Studies in Education of the National Research Council. He has lectured on American education issues in Hong Kong, Japan and the United Arab Emirates. He has a B.A. from Whittier College and an M.A. in government from California State University, Los Angeles. Margaret Hilton (Senior Program Officer) is a senior program officer in the Center for Education (CFE) at the National Research Council. She is currently directing a workshop on future skill demands for work and previ- ously directed a consensus study of the role of high school science labora- tories in supporting science learning. She has made contributions to several workshop and committee reports on topics related to K-12 and higher education, workforce skill demands, and continuing education. In 2003, she was guest editor of a special issue of Comparative Labor Law and Policy. Prior to joining the National Academies in 1999, she was a consultant to the National Skill Standards Board. Earlier, she directed projects on work- force training, employee involvement, and competitiveness at the Congres- sional Office of Technology Assessment. She has a B.A. in geography (with high honors) from the University of Michigan and an M.R.P. (master of regional planning) from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and she is currently studying for an M.A. in human resource development at George Washington University. Eleanor Liebman Johnson is a consultant on educational evaluation and policy analysis working with the Social Science Research Group and Cross & Joftus, LLC. She recently retired as an assistant director for education issues at the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO), where she led over 60 studies, including groundbreaking, high-visibility evaluations of school finance and school facilities, as well as reports on a wide range of elementary and secondary education issues. Recommendations and infor- mation from these reports redefined the model for school finance policy and the metrics of school finance equity nationwide and guided efforts to rebuild and modernize America’s schools and the U.S. Department of Education. As senior methodologist, she supervised the design of nearly 50 other studies, primarily for justice and law enforcement issues. She has a B.A. from Brandeis University, an M.A. from Columbia University, and an Ed.D. from George Washington University. Michael C. Lemmon is currently on detail from the U.S. Department of State to the National War College of the National Defense University as a faculty advisor teaching national security studies. Previously he served four years as dean of the School of Language Studies at the State Department’s Foreign Service Institute, where he represented State in multiple interagency and public fora on language issues, including the intelligence community’s

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 INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES Foreign Language Executive Committee and the Interagency Language Roundtable. Since entering the Foreign Service in 1974, he has also served as U.S. ambassador to Armenia, deputy assistant secretary of state for political-military affairs, and in a range of State Department positions in Washington, Morocco, Tunisia, Pakistan, and Russia. He is the recipient of multiple honor awards and was selected as an international affairs fel- low at the Council on Foreign Relations in New York. He served as a U.S. Army warrant officer helicopter pilot in the Republic of Vietnam and the Federal Republic of Germany. He did undergraduate and graduate studies in international relations and comparative government at the University of Virginia. Mary Ellen O’Connell (Study Director) is a senior program officer in the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (DBASSE) of the National Research Council. She has served as study director for three previous consensus studies: on ethical considerations for research on hous- ing-related health hazards involving children, reducing underage drinking, and assessing and improving children’s health. She also served as study director for the Committee on Standards of Evidence and the Quality of Behavioral and Social Science Research, a DBASSE-wide strategic planning effort; developed standalone workshops on welfare reform and children and gun violence; and facilitated meetings of the national coordinating com- mittee of the Key National Indicators Initiative. She came to DBASSE from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, where she spent eight years in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, most recently as director of state and local initiatives. She has a B.A. (with distinction) from Cornell University and an M.A. in the management of human services from the Heller School at Brandeis University. Kenneth Prewitt is the Carnegie professor of public affairs in the School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University. His previous posi- tions include director of the U.S. Census Bureau, president of the Social Sci- ence Research Council, senior vice president of the Rockefeller Foundation, and director of the National Opinion Research Center and professor at the University of Chicago. Among his awards are a Guggenheim fellowship, honorary degrees from Carnegie Mellon University and Southern Methodist University, and the Officer’s Cross of the Order of Merit from the Federal Republic of Germany. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, the Academy of Political and Social Science, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, as well as a member of other professional associations. He is currently a member of the National Research Council’s CNSTAT, and chair of the Committee on Research and Evidentiary Stan- dards. He has a Ph.D. from Stanford University.

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 APPENDIX F Fernando M. Reimers is the Ford Foundation professor of international education and director of the international education policy and global edu- cation programs at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. He focuses his research and teaching on identifying education policies that support teachers in helping low-income children succeed academically. His current research focuses on the relationship between teacher quality, educational expansion, and social inequality in Mexico and on civic education in Latin America. He also advises governments, development agencies, and private groups involved in education reform in developing nations and has worked in Latin America, Egypt, Jordan, and Pakistan. Prior to joining the Harvard faculty, he served as senior education specialist at the World Bank, at the Harvard Institute for International Development, and on the faculty at the Universidad Central de Venezuela. He is also active in several organizations supporting the development of global skills in American schools. He is cur- rently a member of the advisory board for the National Research Council’s DBASSE. He has a Ph.D. in educational planning and social policy from Harvard University. David M. Trubek is the Voss-Bascom professor of law emeritus and a lecturer at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He is a senior fellow of the university’s Center for World Affairs and the Global Economy and served as its director from 2001 to 2004. From 1990 to 2001, as dean of international studies, he coordinated the university’s area and international studies, managed the International Institute, directed the Office of Interna- tional Studies and Programs, oversaw relations with foreign universities, managed study abroad programs, and was responsible for campus-wide strategic planning in international education. He has published articles and books on the future of international studies, the role of law in development, human rights, European integration, and the impact of globalization on legal systems and social protection schemes. In 2001, he was appointed Chevalier des Palmes Académiques by the French Government for his work on globalization. He has an undergraduate degree from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and a J.D. from Yale Law School. Monica Ulewicz (Program Officer) was, until March 2006, a program of- ficer in CFE at the National Research Council. In her five years at CFE, she worked on a wide range of issues related to international education, including cross-national assessments, child labor, and education for devel- opment. She contributed to the reports Monitoring International Labor Standards: Human Capital Investment and The Power of Video Technology in International Comparative Research in Education. She served as a Peace Corps volunteer in Uganda. She has a B.A. (with honors) in biology from Earlham College and an M.A. in environmental management from Duke University.

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 INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES Elizabeth B. Welles is an education consultant and former director of for- eign language programs and the Association of Departments of Foreign Languages (ADFL) at the Modern Language Association (MLA). While at MLA, she developed and coordinated new and continuing foreign language studies projects, served as editor of the ADFL Bulletin (for which she wrote editorials and numerous articles), and was an officer in the Joint National Committee on Language. She was involved in the initial development of the MLA’s web-based language map of the United States and recently completed a survey of foreign language enrollment among higher education students in the United States. From 1987 to 1993, she served as a program officer in the Division of Education Programs at the National Endowment for the Humanities. Currently, she is a member of the Washington International Education Group and participates in the Interagency Language Round Table. She has a Ph.D. from Yale University in Italian literature, which she taught for 15 years in several colleges and universities. Lori Houghton Wright (Program Officer) is a program officer for the Board on Testing and Assessment at the National Research Council. She has worked with the Committee on Performance Levels in Adult Literacy and the Committee Evaluating the National Board for Professional Teach- ing Standards Certification, and was lead organizer for a workshop on the use of school-level assessment data for evaluation of federal educa- tion programs. Before joining the National Research Council, she oversaw mathematics assessment for the Massachusetts state tests and served as a visiting professor at the University of the Virgin Islands in St. Croix. She has a background in educational leadership, policy analysis, and mathematics. She has a Ph.D. from the University of Missouri, Columbia. Yong Zhao is a university distinguished professor at Michigan State Uni- versity, where he also serves as the founding director of the Center for Teaching and Technology as well as the US-China Center for Research on Educational Excellence. He joined the faculty at Michigan State University in 1996 after working at Willamette University, Hamilton College, and Colgate University as a specialist in technology and language education. Zhao’s research interests include diffusion of innovations, teacher adop- tion of technology, computer-assisted language learning, globalization and education, and international and comparative education. He is a fellow of the International Academy of Education. He has a B.A. from Sichuan International Studies University and A.M. and Ph.D. degrees in education from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.