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Index A American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL), 45n. Abraham Lincoln Study Abroad 1, 56, 97, 134–136, 159, 165–167, Fellowships, 369 235–239, 360 Absolute priority, 73, 350 guidelines, 361–364 Academic freedom, 23 Writing Proficiency Test, 361 ACLS. See American Council of Learned American Educational Research Societies Association, 139, 234 ACTFL. See American Council on the American Overseas Research Centers Teaching of Foreign Languages (AORC), 17, 19, 64, 127, 141, ACTFL scale, 360–364 221–222, 282, 295–296, 319 Activities, performance measures based on, centers authorized, 295 213, 314 development of grants, 296 ADFL. See Association of Departments of limitation, 295–296 Foreign Languages planned performance measures, 215 ADFL Bulletin, 165 use of grants, 295 ADLP. See Center for the Advancement of Application process, 73–74 Distinguished Language Proficiency priorities in CIBER, 356 Advanced Overseas Intensive Language priorities in IRS, 358 Projects, 99 priorities in LRCs, 355 African Studies Association, 106 priorities in NRCs, 352–353 Agency for International Development, 306 recommendation concerning, 10, Agricultural Extension Service, 189 111–112 AIBER. See Association for International Area studies programs Business Education and Research awards in, 69 American Competitiveness Initiative, 66 infusion into the business curriculum, American Council of Learned Societies 191–194 (ACLS), 269 at Ohio State University, 96 overlap in activities of, 65 

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0 INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES programs intended to improve curriculum development, 193 instruction in, 322 education and training programs, programs that support centers with a 301–303 focus on, 321 faculty development, 192 shortage of experts in, 113 findings and purposes, 296–297 summary of, 365–371 implementation challenges, 194 Title VI/FH demand for expertise in, infusion of foreign languages and area 36–57 studies into the business curriculum, Asia Media, 108 191–194 Asia Pacific Arts, 108 institutional capacity, 194 Asia Studies Association, 222 outreach, 193 Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business, planned performance measures, 215 183 projects related to increasing Assessment. See Foreign language representation of minorities, 202 assessment; Self-assessment Business for Diplomatic Action, 41 Association for International Business Business needs addressed, 182–195 Education and Research (AIBER), BIE program, 190–194 185, 189, 221 CIBER program, 183–190 Association of Departments of Foreign conclusions, 195 Languages (ADFL), 165 Auralog, 241 C Authority, in creating new programs in undergraduate international studies, CAL. See Center for Applied Linguistics 289 California Commission on Teacher Award transparency, future needs, Credentialing, 107 223–224, 226–227 California Department of Education, 167 recommendation concerning, 11, 227 CAORC. See Council of American Overseas Research Centers Carnegie classifications, 142 B percentage of grants by type of Berlitz, 58–59n. 1 institution, 90 BIE. See Business and International Carnegie Commission on Higher Education program Education, 90 Bilingual Cross-Cultural Language and CASLS. See Center for Applied Second Academic Development Certificate Language Studies Program, 107 CAST. See Computer-assisted screening Blackboard, 241 tool Boyer Commission on Educating CED. See Committee for Economic Undergraduates in the Research Development University, 164–165 Center for Advanced Research on Brigham Young University, 136, 187 Language Acquisition, 178 Bureau of Educational and Cultural Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL), 56, Affairs, 28 98, 100, 136, 169, 177, 235–236, Business and International Education (BIE) 361 program, 19, 64, 76, 90–91, 109, Center for Applied Second Language 117, 140, 182–183, 190–194, 197, Studies (CASLS), 136 201, 222, 296–303, 319, 328 Center for Near Eastern Studies, 100, 131 authorization of appropriations, 303 Center for the Advancement of course development, 192 Distinguished Language Proficiency criteria and points, 357 (ADLP), 131

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 INDEX Center for Transnational and Comparative CIBER network, 184–185 Studies, 178 Association for International Business Center for World Languages, 132, 168 Education and Research (AIBER), Center grants, and Title VI and Fulbright- 185 Hays in the Department of legislative and administrative supports, Education, 74–76 184–185 Center on Reinventing Public Education, network activities, 185 56, 98 CIBERWeb, 176, 184, 195, 211 Centers for International Business Civilian Linguist Reserve Corps (CLRC), Education and Research (CIBER, 231 CIBE) program, 17, 19, 64, 70–76, Coalition for International Education 80–81, 86, 91, 102, 109–110, (CIE), 222 114, 140–141, 175, 182–190, 197, Cold War, 18 221–222, 297–301, 313, 319, 328, Collaborative approaches, to conducting 356–357 outreach, 106 advisory council, 299–300 Commission on Foreign Languages and application priorities, 356 International Studies, 67n. 6, 283 authorized activities, 298–299 Commission on Higher Education, 66, 223 authorized expenditures, 297–298 Committee for Economic Development average grant amounts, 70 (CED), 39, 97 competition results, 71 Committee on Science, Engineering, and criteria and weights, 357 Public Policy, 77 director questions asked during site visit Committee About Teaching on Asia, 106 interviews, 346 Committee to Review the Title VI and enhanced body of knowledge, 187–189 Fulbright-Hays International foreign languages in the business Education programs, 23–24 curriculum, 186–187 approach to its review, 309–349 grant conditions, 301 commissioning papers and targeted grant duration, federal share, 300–301 analyses, 312 homeland security and U.S. conceptual model, 313–322 international competitiveness, 186 conducting site visits, 92, 148, 190, institutional capacity, 190 223, 313 and Ohio State University, 191 evaluation study summary, 324–331 planned performance measures, 214 open committee sessions, 335–340 program highlights, 185–190 site visit interview guide, 341–349 projects related to increasing summary, 323 representation of minorities, 202 written comments submitted, 332–334 recommendation concerning, 9, 11, 226 Common European Framework of and San Diego State University (SDSU), Reference for Languages, 237n. 4 191 Competition results for undergraduate and graduate in LRCs, 71 business training, 191 in NRCs, 71, 144 Central Intelligence Agency, 48–49, 64, recommendation concerning, 11, 227 122, 360 Competitive grants, 294 Charles Rangel International Affairs Competitive priorities, 73, 350 Graduate Fellowship Program, 205, Computer-assisted screening tool (CAST), 207 136, 180 CIBER, CIBE. See Centers for International Computer networks, 173 Business Education and Research Computerized Oral Proficiency Instrument program (COPI), 236

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 INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES Conceptual model, in committee review, DDRA. See Doctoral Dissertation Research 24, 313–322 Abroad Congress. See Legislative history; U.S. Dearborn Public Schools, 132, 232 Congress Defense Language Institute (DLI), 6, 25, Congressional Budget Office, 123 29, 59, 127, 136, 149–152, 327, Congressional Research Service (CRS), 48, 360, 370 63–64 LCTLs offered, 152 Consortium for Language Learning and Defense Language Transformation Teaching, 132 Roadmap, 53, 233 Consortium in Latin American Studies, 106 Demand overall, and Title VI and Fulbright-Hays Continuing and Emerging National Needs in the Department of Education, 76 for the Internationalization of Undergraduate Education, 331 in specific federal agencies, 50–53 Continuous improvement, future needs, Department of Education Organization 221–223, 226 Act, 243 recommendation concerning, 9, 11, Desert Storm, 62 226 Difficult languages, 154 COPI. See Computerized Oral Proficiency Digital Media Archive, 92–93 Instrument Digital revolution, 172–173 Cornell University, 158–159, 179 Digital technology, 240 Council of American Overseas Research Dissemination, of an enhanced body of Centers (CAORC), 221, 331 knowledge, 188–189 Council of Directors of National Foreign DLI. See Defense Language Institute Language Resource Centers, 105, Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad 221 (DDRA), 18–19, 72, 120, 133–134, Council of Middle East Outreach 141, 150, 153–154, 220, 225, 273, Directors, 101 312, 315, 331 Council of NRC Directors, 93, 221 fellowships awarded, 153 Course development, in the BIE program, planned performance measures, 215 192 DoD. See U.S. Department of Defense Criteria and weights Duke University, 188 in BIE, 357 in CIBER, 357 E in IRS, 359 in LRCs, 355 E-LCTL Initiative, 130, 327 in NRCs, 354 ED. See U.S. Department of Education Critical languages, 4–6, 22–23, 29, 43, Education Amendments of 1972, 275–276 52–53, 127, 131 Education Amendments of 1976, 277 priorities in, 30 Education Amendments of 1980, 277–279 varying definitions of, 30, 281 Education for Economic Security Act, 307 Cross-cultural competence, 43 Educational needs and teaching gaps, Cross-national communications, 174 96–98 CRS. See Congressional Research Service Educational Testing Service, 360 Curriculum development, in the BIE EELIAS. See Evaluation of Exchange, program, 193 Language, International and Area Studies database Electronic outreach, 101 D Elementary and Secondary Education Act, David L. Boren National Security 277 Education Act, 62, 281 Enhanced body of knowledge, 187–189 dissemination, 188–189

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 INDEX graduate placements, 189 FH. See Fulbright-Hays International research, 188 Education Act programs (formally Enrollments. See Foreign language known as the Mutual Educational enrollments and Cultural Exchange Act) Equitable distribution, of grants, 294 FIPSE. See Fund for the Improvement of Evaluation Postsecondary Education in creating new programs in Fisher College of Business, 191 undergraduate international studies, FLAP. See Foreign Language Assistance 292 Program of a foreign language institute, 103 FLAS. See Foreign Language and Area K-12 outreach activities, 102 Studies Fellowships recommendation concerning, 8–9, 11, Florida International University, 178, 183 225 Florida Network for Global Studies, 178 summary of studies in committee Ford Foundation, 222 review, 324–331 Foreign Curriculum Consultants, 273 Evaluation of Exchange, Language, Foreign Language and Area Studies International and Area Studies Fellowships (FLAS), 2, 7, 17, 19, database (EELIAS), 74, 74n. 9,105, 34, 67–70, 73, 81, 94, 114–116, 114–120, 134, 142, 145, 157, 176, 120–121, 127–128, 133–143, 151, 197, 211–212, 216–221, 218n. 6, 154, 212, 217, 220, 225, 236, 245, 225, 310, 325 311, 315 data transparency in, 218–219 disciplines of fellows, 95 evolution of, 217 planned performance measures, 214 technical issues with, 217, 311 recommendation concerning, 10, 138 Export-Import Bank, 306 Foreign language assessment, 246–247 expanded needs, 234–235 recommendation concerning, 7–8, 10, F 139 Foreign Language Assistance Program Faculty development (FLAP), 6, 25–26, 61, 132, 208, in the BIE program, 192 230, 232, 232nn. 1, 2, 242, 277, in teaching foreign languages for 367 business purposes, 187 Foreign language enrollments, in selected Faculty questions, during site visit languages in U.S. institutions of interviews, 346–348 higher education, 55, 56, 57, 130, Faculty Research Abroad (FRA), 18, 20, 150–151 62, 90, 134, 141, 153, 273, 315 Foreign languages in the business planned performance measures, 215 curriculum, 186–187 FAO. See U.S. Army Foreign Area Officer development of language teaching and Program testing materials, 187 Fastlane, 227 faculty development in teaching foreign Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 44, languages for business purposes, 48–49, 50n. 2, 58–59n. 1, 124–125 187 demand in, 50–51 research on business languages, 187 Federal foreign language programs, teaching foreign languages for business summary of, 365–371 purposes, 186–187 Federal funding, as a catalyst for outreach Foreign languages programs activities, 105 awards in, 69 Federal Funding for International Studies: programs intended to improve Does It Help? Does It Matter?, 330 instruction in, 322 Federal Register, 73, 218, 282

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 INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES programs that support centers with a George Washington University, 100, 177 focus on, 321 Georgetown University, 100, 109, 148, shortage of experts in, 113 158, 177, 219 Foreign Service, 204, 206, 235 Gilman International Scholarship Program, Foreign Service Institute (FSI), 6, 25, 29, 205–206, 231, 368 45, 51–52, 59, 127, 149–152, Global Business Breakfast Series, 188 234–235, 246, 327, 360, 370 Global Business Languages, 187 LCTLs offered, 152 Global e-commerce training for business FRA. See Faculty Research Abroad and educators, 178 Fulbright-Hays International Education Globalizing Business Schools project, 198 Act (FH) programs, 2–3, 9, 16–18, Government Accountability Office (GAO), 28–29, 64, 67–68, 72, 98, 101–102, 47–48, 121, 123, 212 141, 143, 150–151, 230, 268, 282, Government demand, 47–53 366 demand in specific federal agencies, allocation history, 72 50–53 at the Departments of Education, 61–62 Federal Bureau of Investigation, 50–51 at the Department of State, 61, 65, 366 federal employment of people with Fund for the Improvement of language and area expertise, 48–49 Postsecondary Education (FIPSE), turnover, 49 61, 367 U.S. Department of Defense, 52–53 Funding U.S. Department of State, 51–52 allocations and Title VI and Fulbright- Government Performance and Results Act Hays in the Department of (GPRA), 115–116, 192, 213, 217, Education, 32–34, 68–73 314, 329 history of, 32–34 GPA. See Group Projects Abroad sources for NRCs, 145 Graduate fellowships, 199 Future needs, 228–248 Graduate placements, and an enhanced award transparency, 223–224, 226–227 body of knowledge, 189 conclusions and recommendations, Grand Valley State University, 222 224–227, 242–248 Grant amounts continuous improvement, 221–223, 226 average in LRCs, 70 foreign language assessment, average in NRCs, 70 instruction, and technology, Grant conditions, in creating new programs 246–248 in undergraduate international new demands and opportunities, studies, 291 233–242 Grant monitoring process, and Title VI and new federal directions, 229–233 Fulbright-Hays in the Department of program evaluation, 219–220, 225 Education, 74 program monitoring, 212–219, Group Projects Abroad (GPA), 18, 20, 72, 224–225 98–99, 101, 133–134, 140, 151, 273, 315 planned performance measures, 215 G GAO. See Government Accountability H Office (formerly known as General Accounting Office) Hawaii World Trade Center, 188 Garvin School of International HBCUs. See Historically black colleges and Management, 187 universities General Accounting Office. See Heritage language speakers, 130–133 Government Accountability Office communities of, 100

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 INDEX Higher Education Act (HEA), 2, 23, 26, Incentives for the creation of new programs 32n. 4, 129, 197, 220n. 8, 221–222, in undergraduate international 267, 276, 278 studies and foreign language Higher Education Amendments of 1986, programs, 289–292 279–280 application, 291–292 Higher Education Amendments of 1992, authority, 289 280–282, 308 evaluation, 292 Higher Education Amendments of 1998, grant conditions, 291 282 non-federal share, 290–291 Historically black colleges and universities priority, 291 (HBCUs), 190, 201 special rule, 291 History of foreign language assessment in use of funds, 289–290 the United States, 360–364 Inconsistency across programs, an issue comparison between ACTFL and ILR with EELIAS database, 311 descriptors, 363–364 Increasing Representation of Minorities comparison between ACTFL guidelines in International Service Through and ILR scale, 362 International Education Programs, Homeland security, and U.S. international 312n. 3, 324 competitiveness, 186 Indiana University, 110, 162 Hot Potatoes, 241 tracking Russia and East Europe Hotel Rwanda (motion picture), 108 Specialists at, 122, 180 House Committee on Education and Labor, Individuals, programs that provide funds 277–278 to, 318 House Permanent Select Committee on Information and communication Intelligence, 47 technologies (ICT), 171–172, 177 advances in, 172–174 digital revolution, 172–173 I implications for Title VI/FH programs, 173–174 IB, IBE. See International Business mass communication, 172 Education personalized publishing and ICT. See Information and communication broadcasting, 173 technologies Informed citizenry IEA. See International Education Act cultural competencies, 40–41 IEPS. See International Education Programs disciplines, 41–42 Service foreign language, 42 IIPP. See Institute for International Public need for, 39–42 Policy InfoUse, 120, 312 IIPP fellowship program, 197–201 Infusion of foreign languages and area Illustrations of, 178 studies into the business curriculum, ILR. See Interagency Language Roundtable with the BIE program, 191–194 ILR scale, 360–364 Inputs, performance measures based on, Impact, performance measures based on, 213, 314 213, 314 Institute for International Public Policy Implementation challenges, in the BIE (IIPP), 17, 20, 32, 32n. 5, 34, program, 194 60n. 2, 67, 86n. 4, 141n. 1, 142, Implementation Issues and Options for the 196–200, 281, 303–306, 310, 315, HEA Title VI and Fulbright Hays 318, 324, 326 Programs, 312n. 6 authorization, 306 gifts and donations, 306

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 INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES internships, 305–306 authorization of appropriations, 296 junior year abroad program, 304–305 equitable distribution of certain funds, masters degree in international 294–295 relations, 305 findings and purposes, 284–285 minority foreign service professional graduate and undergraduate language development program, 303–304 and area centers and programs, planned performance measures, 215 285–287 projects related to increasing grants to maintain library collections, representation of minorities, 202 286 recommendation concerning, 10, 207 national language and area centers and report, 306 programs authorized, 285–287 outreach grants and summer institutes, Institute for International Public Policy Impact Assessment, 326 286–287 Institutional capacity, 190 special rule with respect to travel, 287 in the BIE program, 194 International business education (IB, IBE), Institutional Resource Development Grant programs that support, 320 Program, 198, 201 International education, in the university Instructional materials, 158–161 environment, 78–79 approaches to ensuring relevance and International Education Act (IEA), quality, 163–169 273–275, 278 conclusions, 169–170 International Education Programs Service contribution of Title VI programs (IEPS), 16, 67, 74, 74n. 9, 110, 212, to strengthening materials 221, 225 development, 166–169 and Title VI and Fulbright-Hays in the current efforts to ensure the quality of Department of Education, 67–68 language instructional materials, International Monetary Fund, 306 164 International Research and Studies (IRS) evaluating, 167–169 program, 2, 17–18, 18n. 2, 21, 64, examples, 158–159 85n. 2, 101, 128, 140–141, 156– formats, 160 157, 157n. 3, 160–163, 170, 176, intended uses, 158–159 218–219, 225, 310, 319, 358–359 language focus, 160–161 application priorities, 358 materials for instruction, 158 criteria and weights, 359 materials for instructors, 158–159 Darvazah, a door into Urdu, 180 materials for students, 159 illustrations of technology as a content producing relevant, 156–170 enhancer in projects funded by, 180 scholarly standards, 163 language focus, 161 strengthening development of foreign online diagnostic tests and course language materials, 164–166 materials for dialects of Arabic, Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR), Chinese, and Persian, 180 45, 50, 63, 67, 122, 128, 135, 150, planned performance measures, 214 154–156, 235, 238–239, 246, 360 projects classified as research and Interdisciplinary Research on International evaluation, 141 Themes, 144 projects related to increasing Internal controls, an issue with EELIAS representation of minorities, 203 database, 311 Uzbek-English/English-Uzbek Internal Revenue Service, 295–296 Dictionary, 180 International and foreign language studies, International Resource Information System 284–296 (IRIS), 8, 74n. 9, 212n. 2, 217–218 American overseas research centers, recommendation regarding, 8, 10, 225 295–296

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 INDEX International studies librarian questions, Joint National Committee for Languages during site visit interviews, 349 (JNCL), 222 Internationalizing higher education, 90–96 Journal of Language for International Internationalizing K-12 education, 96–104 Business, the, 187 educational needs and teaching gaps, Junior Summer Policy Institute, 199 96–98 Junior Year Study Abroad Program, 199, electronic outreach, 101 306 evaluating K-12 outreach activities, 102 Group Projects Abroad, 98–99 K National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center, 100 K-12 education, 96–104, 136, 167 NRC and LRC outreach to K-12, K-16 education, 103 99–102 outreach priorities, 99 preparing teachers for international L education, 103–104 review, development, and dissemination Language Acquisition Resource Center, 131 of instructional materials, 101–102 Language Across the Curriculum program, role of Title VI/FH programs in K-12 92 education, 98–99 Language and Critical Area Studies After school site programs, 100–101 September , 327 Seminars Abroad, 99 Language and National Security in the st teacher training, 100 Century, 329 Internet, the, 172–173 Language assessment, new approach courses on, 178 needed, 235–237. See also Foreign Invitational priority, 73, 350 language assessment Iowa State University, 167 recommendations concerning, 7, 8, 10, Iraq Study Group, 52 11, 139, 247–248 IRIS. See International Resource Language Materials Project (LMP), 168 Information System Language platforms, 240–242 IRS. See International Research and Studies recommendation concerning, 8, 11, program 247–248 Language proficiency, 128–136 assessing in FLAS recipients, 134–136 J heritage language speakers, 130–133 recommendations concerning, 7, 8, 10, JNCL. See Joint National Committee for 11, 139, 247–248 Languages and Study Abroad and Foreign Job placements, 114–126 Language and Area Studies addressing unmet needs in government, fellowships, 133–134 121–126 Language Resource Centers (LRC), 17, experience in the National Security 21, 34, 64, 69–76, 86, 89–93, 98, Education Program, 125–126 101–102, 107, 128, 132, 135–136, inadequate communication of 139–141, 145, 149, 156–157, 162, government needs to the field, 167, 175, 178, 197, 221–222, 232– 123–124 233, 288–289, 313, 319, 355–356 matching skills with openings, 125 application priorities, 355 in NRCs, 118 authorized activities, 288 recruitment issues, 124–125 average grant amounts, 70 tracking problems, 120–121 competition results, 71 where graduates are going, 116–120 conditions for grants, 288–289

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 INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES M criteria and weights, 355 director and deputy questions asked Market disequilibrium, 37 during site visit interviews, 344–345 Mass communication, 172 planned performance measures, 214 Master’s and Ph.D. graduates, in NRCs, projects related to increasing 119 representation of minorities, 202 Master’s “graduates” by discipline, in recommendations concerning, 9–11, NRCs, 94 111–112, 226 MESA. See Middle East Studies Association Languages. See Conversational language; Michigan State University, 101, 132, 158, Critical languages; Difficult 176, 179, 184, 232 languages; Heritage language Middle East Centers, 100, 118 speakers; Less commonly taught Middle East Outreach Council, 102, 106 languages Middle East Studies Association (MESA), Latin American Business Environment, 189 55, 106, 129 LCTLs. See Less commonly taught Middlebury College, 199 languages Minorities in international service Legislative history, 26–32, 267–308 Charles Rangel International Affairs broadening the scope, 280–282 Graduate Fellowship Program, 205, conclusion, 283 207 Education Amendments of 1972, Gilman International Scholarship, 275–276 205–206 Education Amendments of 1976, 277 IIPP fellowship program, 197–201 Education Amendments of 1980, increasing the numbers of 277–279 underrepresented, 196–208 embedding and revising, 276–280 Louis Stokes Educational Scholarship Higher Education Amendments of Program, 205, 207 1986, 279–280 other federal programs with similar Higher Education Amendments of goals, 204–206 1992, 280–282, 308 projects related to increase in LRCs, Higher Education Amendments of 202 1998, 282 projects related to increase in NRCs, International Education Act (IEA), 202 273–275 Public Policy and International Affairs laying the foundations, 269–276 Fellowship Program, 206 Mutual Educational and Cultural recommendations concerning, 206–208 Exchange Act, 272–273, 278 Title VI-funded projects aimed at National Defense Education Act minority students, 201–203 (NDEA), 269–272 Minority foreign service professional Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness development program, 303–304 Act, 280 application, 304 Less commonly taught languages (LCTLs), definition of eligible recipient, 303–304 7–8, 93, 126–127, 148, 155, 161, duration, 304 319, 327 establishment, 303 catalyzing instruction, 148 match required, 304 LMP. See Language Materials Project Mobile phone technology, 172 Los Angeles Unified School District, 100 Modern Language Association (MLA), 55, Lost (television program), 108 78, 148–149, 165, 269, 312 Louis Stokes Educational Scholarship Monitoring. See Program monitoring Program, 205, 207 Moodle, 241 LRCs. See Language Resource Centers Multimedia Annotator, 241

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 INDEX Multimedia Lesson Builder, 241 competition results, 71, 144 Mutual Educational and Cultural criteria and weights, 354 Exchange Act, 272–273, 278. See director and deputy questions during also Fulbright-Hays International site visit interviews, 342–344 Education Act programs funding sources, 145 job placements of graduates, 118 master’s and Ph.D. graduates, 119 N master’s “graduates” by discipline, 94 numbers by world area and tier, 75 National Academies, 77, 222 planned performance measures, 214 National Capital Language Resource projects related to increasing Center, 136, 158, 177 representation of minorities, 202 National Center for Education Statistics, recommendations concerning, 9–11, 57, 98 111–112, 226 National Commission on Asia in the students in LCTLs enrolled at, 150–151 Schools, 97 National Science Foundation (NSF), 163, National Commission on Terrorist Attacks 166, 174, 227, 305 Upon the United States, 48 National Security Agency (NSA), 44, 125, National Council of Area Studies 205 Associations (NCASA), 55n. 6 National security considerations, 1, 4–5, National Council of Organizations of 28–30, 129, 137 Less Commonly Taught Languages National Security Council, 306 (NCOLCTL), 148 National Security Education Act. See National Cryptologic School, 370 David L. Boren National Security National Defense Education Act (NDEA), Education Act 18, 26, 28, 129, 171–172, 267–274, National Security Education Program 278 (NSEP), 6–7, 23, 25, 57, 60–64, 81, National Flagship Language Program 123, 125, 131, 137, 150, 230–232, (NFLP), 57, 63, 132, 230–232, 242 242, 245, 366 National Foreign Language Assessment National Security Language Initiative and Technology Project, (NSLI), 4, 6, 23, 29, 64n. 4, 66, recommendation concerning, 8, 11, 187, 228, 231–232, 242–244 247–248 components of proposed, 230–231 National Foreign Language Center, 217 future role, 231–232 National Geographic/Roper Survey, 97 National Virtual Translation Center, National Heritage Language Center, 132 58–59n. 1 National K-12 Foreign Language Resource NCASA. See National Council of Area Center, 100, 136, 167 Studies Association National Language Conference, 130 NCOLCTL. See National Council of National Language Service Corps, 230 Organizations of Less Commonly National Online Early Language Learning Taught Languages Assessment, 136 NDEA. See National Defense Education Act National Research Council, 2, 37, 92 New Visions in Action, 167 National Resource Centers (NRC), 2–3, New York University, 92, 131 9, 21–25, 34, 67, 71–76, 80, 85n. NFLP. See National Flagship Language 1, 86, 89–95, 98, 101–106, 110, Program 114–116, 121–123, 128, 130, 9/11 Commission, 18, 48, 124 133–156, 162, 175, 181, 197, 200, No Child Left Behind Act, 112, 235 212, 217, 221, 233, 312–313, 319, North Carolina State University, 180 352–354 NRCs. See National Resource Centers application priorities, 352–353 NSA. See National Security Agency average grant amounts, 70

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0 INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES NSEP. See National Security Education conversational language, 238 Program developmental scale, 239 NSF. See National Science Foundation expense and limited availability, 239 NSLI. See National Security Language issues with, 238–239 Initiative nature of language ability, 239 reliability, 238 validity, 238 O Oral Proficiency Rating Scale, 361 Organization of American States, 306 Office of International Affairs, 66, 96 “Other” category used for key questions, Office of International Education, 96 an issue with EELIAS database, 311 Office of Language Services, 58–59n. 1 “Outcome approach” logic model, 315 Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Outcomes 9, 66, 213, 213n. 3, 217, 312 performance measures based on, 213, Office of Personnel Management, 124 314 Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy schematic of all programs showing Development (OPEPD), 120, 220, short-term and longer-term, 36, 317 225 Outputs, performance measures based on, Office of Postsecondary Education (OPE), 213, 314 16, 61, 66–67, 233 Outreach Council of the African Studies Office of the Director of National Centers, 106 Intelligence, 5 Outreach to other audiences, 107–110 recommendation concerning, 7, 11, activities, 105–106 244–246 in the BIE program, 193 Office of the United States Trade business, 109–110 Representative, 306 challenges, 104–105 Ohio State University, 95, 100–101, 144, collaborative approaches, 106 148, 158 conducted, 104–106 infusion of foreign languages and area federal funding as a catalyst for studies, 96 outreach activities, 105 Oklahoma State Department of Education, government, 109 167 heritage communities, 107–108 OMB. See Office of Management and media, 108–109 Budget priorities, 99 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act, public, the, 110 280 Outreach World, 102, 162, 176 Online collaboration, 174 Overlap in activities, of three federal OPE. See Office of Postsecondary Education foreign language and area studies Open committee sessions, in committee programs, 65 review, 335–340 Overseas Private Investment Corporation, Open-ended questions, an issue with 306 EELIAS database, 311 Overseas study, 133–134 OPEPD. See Office of Planning, Evaluation recommendation concerning, 10, 138 and Policy Development support for research, education and OPI. See Oral proficiency interview training, 150–153 Oral Proficiency Interview Approach to Foreign Language Assessment, The, 312n. 5 P Oral proficiency interview (OPI), 136, 139, 235, 237–239, 360 Pacific Basin Economic Council, 188 comparability in ratings, 239 PART. See Program Assessment Rating Tool

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 INDEX R Partnership for Public Service, 124–125 Pat Roberts Intelligence Scholars Program, REEI. See Russian and East European 60, 369 Institute Peace Corps, 126, 360, 367 Report to Congress, recommendation Pennsylvania State University, 159 concerning, 7, 11, 244–246 Performance measures, 213–216, 226 Request for applications (RFA), 73, categories of, 213, 314 350–351 planned measures, 214 Research recommendation concerning, 226 into an enhanced body of knowledge, Personalized publishing and broadcasting, 188 173 on business languages, 187 Pickering Program. See Thomas Pickering Reserve Officers’ Training Corps, 131 Foreign Affairs Fellowship Program Review, committee’s approach to, 309–349 Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center, 174 RFA. See Request for applications Portland Public Schools, 232 Ribicoff, Abraham, 273 PPIA. See Public Policy and International Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Affairs Fellowship Program Energizing and Employing America President’s Commission on Foreign for a Brighter Future, 38 Language and International Studies, Russian, East European, and Eurasian 212 Studies (REEES) Consortium, 178 Priorities Russian and East European Institute absolute, 73, 350 (REEI), 122, 162 in CIBER application process, 356 competitive, 73, 350 in critical languages, 30 S invitational, 73, 350 in IRS application process, 358 SA. See Seminars Abroad in LRC application process, 355 San Diego State University, 92, 107, 131, in NRC application process, 352–353 136, 180 Producing International Expertise in MBA developing and disseminating Programs, 328 curriculum, 93 Proficiency. See Foreign language School site programs, 100–101 assessment; Language proficiency; Schools and Staffing Survey, 57, 98 Oral proficiency interview; Science and Mathematics Access to Retain Simulated oral proficiency interview Talent (SMART), 66 Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART), Securing Our Nation’s Future Through 213, 213n. 3, 220, 220n. 8, 310, 312 International Business Education, Program evaluation, future needs, 328 219–220, 225 Security. See National security considerations Program monitoring, 212–219, 224–225 Selection criteria and priorities in Title EELIAS database, 216–219 VI and Fulbright-Hays programs, future needs, 212–219, 224–225 350–359 IRIS, 8, 74n. 9, 212n. 2, 217–218 absolute priority, 73, 350 performance measures, 213–216 CIBER, 356–357 recommendations concerning, 6–8, competitive priority, 73, 350 10–11, 225, 243–244 invitational priority, 73, 350 Provost/senior international officer IRS, 358–359 questions, during site visit LRC, 355–356 interviews, 341–342 NRC, 352–354 Public Policy and International Affairs Selection of certain grant recipients, 294 Fellowship Program (PPIA), 206–207 competitive grants, 294 Purdue University, 184–185, 187

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 INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES equitable distribution of grants, 294 Summary of federal foreign language selection criteria, 294 and area studies programs, 323, Self-assessment, recommendation 365–371 concerning, 7–8, 10, 139 Abraham Lincoln Study Abroad Seminars Abroad (SA), 18, 20, 62, 99, 101, Fellowships, 369 140, 156, 273, 315 Defense Language Institute, 370 planned performance measures, 215 Foreign Language Assistance Program, Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 367 273 Foreign Service Institute, 370 Senate Committee on Labor and Human Fulbright Program, 366 Resources, 196, 278, 281 Fund for the Improvement of Post- September 11, 2001, 1, 22, 29, 47, 50, secondary Education, 367 100–101, 186, 222. See also 9/11 Gilman International Scholarship Commission Program, 368 Simulated oral proficiency interview National Cryptologic School, 370 (SOPI), 235–236 National Security Education Program, Site visit interview guide, 341–349 366 CIBER director questions, 346 Pat Roberts Intelligence Scholars in Committee review, 341–349 Program, 369 faculty questions, 346–348 Peace Corps, 367 international studies librarian questions, Special Operations Forces Language 349 Office, 371 key to eight areas of review, 341 Stokes Educational Scholarship LRC director and deputy questions, Program, 368 344–345 Title VI/Fulbright-Hays, 369 NRC director and deputy questions, Title VIII Program, 368 342–344 Summer Language Institute, 199 provost/senior international officer Support for research, education and questions, 341–342 training, 140–155 student questions, 348–349 conclusions, 153–155 topics addressed in every interview, 341 dissemination of knowledge, 146–147 Site visits, 92, 148, 190, 223, 313 enhancing the body of knowledge in Slavic Review, 147 FLAS, 142–147 SMART. See Science and Mathematics leverage, 144–146 Access to Retain Talent overseas study, 150–153 “Social demand,” 37 research capacity and prestige, 142–144 Social Science Research Council (SSRC), support for less commonly taught 85n. 2, 218 languages, 148–150 Sophomore Summer Policy Institute, 199 SOPI. See Simulated oral proficiency T interview Special Operations Forces Language Office, Teacher training, 100 371 Technical issues with EELIAS database, Sputnik satellite, 26 217, 311 SSRC. See Social Science Research Council Technological Innovation and Cooperation Stokes Educational Scholarship Program, for Foreign Information Access 60, 81, 204, 207, 368 (TICFIA), 17, 21, 64, 76, 156, 159, Student questions, during site visit 168, 175–181, 282, 293–294, 311, interviews, 348–349 319, 325 Study Abroad and Foreign Language and application, 294 Area Studies fellowships, 133–134

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 INDEX authority, 293 demand for foreign language, area, and authorized activities, 293–294 international expertise, 36–57 match required, 294 in the Department of Education, 66–76 planned performance measures, 215 evaluation study summary, 324–331 Technology implementation, 58–81 in the Center for Advanced Research on legislative time line of current, 27 Language Acquisition, 178 list of, 19–21 as a content enhancer, 177 meeting national needs, 18–23 as a delivery tool, 176–177 planned performance measures, 214–215 in the Florida Network for Global recommendation concerning, 9–11, Studies, 178 208, 226 global e-commerce training for business in relation to other federal programs, and educators, 178 58–65 illustrations of, 178 selection criteria and priorities in, and instruction, 237–240, 247–248 350–359 language platforms, 240–242 and the university context, 76–81 recommendation concerning, 8, 11, Title VI BIE Funding: A Survey of 247–248 Success, 328 in the Russian, East European, Title VI of the Higher Education Act (Title and Eurasian Studies (REEES) VI) institutions Consortium, 178 cumulative placements of Slavic and Middle Eastern Studies students, Technology and Instructional Materials 116–117 in Title VI and Fulbright-Hays dissertations in Slavic and Middle International Education Programs, 312n. 4, 325 Eastern Studies, 129 Terrorism, threat of, 186, 222 expanding Arabic instruction, 131 Texas A&M University, 191 graduate and undergraduate Thomas Pickering Foreign Affairs enrollments in most popular Fellowship Program, 60, 204, 207 language courses, 130 projects related to increasing Three Decades of Excellence -, 331 representation of minorities, Thunderbird Center for International 202–203 Business, 187 Title VI of the Higher Education Act (Title TICFIA. See Technological Innovation VI) programs, 2–3, 9, 16–17, 24–25, and Cooperation for Foreign 29, 61, 68, 70, 92, 95–96, 105, 109, Information Access 112, 116, 119, 127, 129, 133, 137, Title VI and Fulbright-Hays (Title VI/FH) 143–154, 169, 171, 268, 325, 327 programs, 1–6, 13–81, 22–25, 32– aimed at minority students, 201–203 37, 32n. 5, 54, 57–61, 64, 81–86, allocation history for, 68 89–91, 104, 110–116, 123–130, benefits and complexities of funding, 133, 136–141, 144–146, 149–150, 79–81 153–161, 164, 166, 169, 171, 184, LCTLs offered, 152 196–197, 203, 209, 211–212, 217, and the National Security Education 228–229, 245–248, 267–269, 329, Program, 62–64 369 proportion of applications funded, 77 appropriations for, 33 unique components of, 64–65 brief history and federal context, 26–34 Title VIII Program, 368 charge to the committee, 23–26 Tomsk State University, 96, 144 conclusion, 81 Transparency, in the EELIAS database, current controversies, 22–23 218–219

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 INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES Tribally Controlled Community College University of Wisconsin, 159, 179, 241 Assistance Act, 304–305 University officials, recommendation Turnover concerns, 49 concerning, 9, 11, 226 U.S. Army Foreign Area Officer (FAO) Program, 127 U U.S. Congress, 2, 7, 23–24, 26, 89, 114, 268, 309 Undergraduate International Studies and program areas to be addressed in Foreign Language (UISFL) Program, responding to, 316 17, 21, 32n. 4, 64, 76, 90–92, 140, recommendation concerning, 7, 11, 146, 154, 178, 194, 276, 289–292, 244–246 319, 330–331 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 189 funding support, 292 U.S. Department of Commerce, 16, 48, 193 incentives for the creation of new U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), 5–6, programs in undergraduate 22, 44, 52, 57, 62–63, 121, 123, international studies and foreign 125–126, 132, 137, 168, 232–233, language programs, 289–292 243 planned performance measures, 214 demand in, 52–53 programs of national significance, 292 recommendation concerning, 7, 11, United Nations, 306 244–246 United Negro College Fund, 86n. 4, U.S. Department of Education (ED), 2–9, 197–198, 200–201, 326 15–17, 64, 73–74, 81, 84, 98, 103, United States Information Agency, 306 112, 115–116, 115n. 3, 119–120, University context of Title VI and Fulbright- 128, 132–145, 151n. 5, 156, 162, Hays implementation, 76–81 166, 168, 182, 197n. 1, 211, 217, benefits and complexities of Title VI 223–224, 228–229, 233, 242–244, funding, 79–81 270, 281–282, 330, 350 challenges for international education, FH programs at, 61–62 78–79 future role, 232–233 University of Arizona, 158 recommendations concerning, 6–11, University of California, Los Angeles, 91, 111–112, 138–139, 208, 225–227, 100–101, 108–110, 131–132, 158, 243–244 162, 168, 176, 179 U.S. Department of Education (ED) University of Chicago, 179 and Title VI and Fulbright-Hays University of Connecticut, 185–186, implementation, 66–76 188–189 application process, 73–74 University of Florida, 178, 188 center grants, 74–76 University of Hawaii, 167, 183, 188 funding allocations, 68–73 University of Iowa, 103, 178 grant monitoring process, 74 University of Kansas, 179 International Education Programs University of Maryland, 199 Service, 67–68 University of Minnesota, 166, 178 overall demand, 76 University of New Mexico, 127 U.S. Department of Health, Education, and University of North Carolina, 102 Welfare, 273 University of Oregon, 136, 232 U.S. Department of State, 5–6, 22, 25, University of Pennsylvania, 101 28n. 3, 41, 48–49, 51n. 3, 58–59n. University of Richmond, 146 1, 60–62, 123, 125–127, 196, 200, University of South Carolina, 183 204–205, 243, 306 University of Texas, 187 demand in, 51–52 University of the Incarnate Word, 201 FH programs at, 61–62 University of Virginia, 179 recommendation concerning, 7, 11, University of Washington, 56, 98, 188, 201 244–246

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 INDEX U.S. Export Assistance Centers, 189, 193 Woodrow Wilson Fellowships in Public U.S. Freedom Support Act, 123 Policy and International Affairs. U.S. Information Agency, 29 See Public Policy and International U.S. military, 48–49, 118 Affairs Fellowship Program U.S. News & World Report, 147, 183, 191 WordChamp.com, 241 World Affairs Council, 188 World Bank, the, 306 V “World languages,” 15n. 1 World Trade Center attacks. See Virtual conferences, 174 September 11, 2001 World War II, 31 Written comments submitted, in committee W review, 332–334 Wall Street Journal, the, 41 Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Y 219 WebCT, 241 Yale University, 179 Weighting. See Criteria and weights Young Americans, 41–42 What Works Clearinghouse, 112 Wisconsin International Outreach Consortium, 106

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