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Committee to Review the Title VI and Fulbright-Hays International Education Programs Mary Ellen O’Connell and Janet L. Norwood, Editors Center for Education Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Govern- ing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineer- ing, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropri- ate balance. This study was supported by Grant No. ED05CO0016 between the National Acad- emy of Sciences and the United States Department of Education. Any opinions, find- ings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data International education and foreign languages : keys to securing America’s future / Committee to Review the Title VI and Fulbright-Hays International Education Programs ; Mary Ellen O’Connell and Janet L. Norwood, editors. p. cm. ISBN-13: 978-0-309-10494-4 (case : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-309-10494-7 (case : alk. paper) 1. Language and languages—Study and teaching (Higher)—United States. 2. Area studies—United States. I. O’Connell, Mary Ellen, 1960- II. Norwood, Janet Lippe. III. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee to Review the Title VI and Fulbright-Hays International Education Programs. P57.U7I58 2007 418.0071'173—dc22 2007014905 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap. edu. Printed in the United States of America Cover: The languages used on the cover are the six official languages used by the United Nations in its meetings and documents: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish. Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Suggested citation: National Research Council (2007). International Education and Foreign Languages: Keys to Securing America’s Future, Committee to Review the Title VI and Fulbright-Hays International Education Programs, M.E. O’Connell and J.L. Norwood, Editors. Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sci- ences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acad- emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding en- gineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer- ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is presi- dent of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti- tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Coun- cil is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE TITLE VI AND FULBRIGHT-HAYS INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS JANET L. NORWOOD (Chair), Chevy Chase, MD WILLIAM M. ARNOLD, International Government Relations, Shell Oil Company, Houston LYLE F. BACHMAN, Department of Applied Linguistics and TESOL, University of California, Los Angeles BURT S. BARNOW, Institute for Policy Studies, Johns Hopkins University SHEILA BIDDLE, Independent consultant, New York City CHRISTOPHER T. CROSS, Cross & Joftus, LLC, Danville, CA ELEANOR LIEBMAN JOHNSON, Independent consultant, Washington, DC MICHAEL C. LEMMON, National War College, National Defense University KENNETH PREWITT, School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University FERNANDO M. REIMERS, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University DAVID M. TRUBEK, Center for World Affairs and the Global Economy, University of Wisconsin-Madison ELIZABETH B. WELLES, Independent consultant, Washington, DC YONG ZHAO, Educational Psychology and Educational Technology, Michigan State University MARY ELLEN O’CONNELL, Study Director NAOMI CHUDOWSKY, Senior Program Officer MARGARET HILTON, Senior Program Officer (since June 2006) LORI HOUGHTON WRIGHT, Program Officer (since March 2006) MONICA ULEWICZ, Program Officer (until March 2006) MARY ANN KASPER, Senior Program Assistant JEREMY BROWNE, Data Consultant, Brigham Young University v

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CENTER FOR EDUCATION RICHARD MURNANE (Chair), Graduate School of Education, Harvard University DAVID BOTSTEIN, Lewis-Sigler Institute, Princeton University DENIS P. DOYLE, SchoolNet, Chevy Chase, MD GERALD R. FINK, Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA LOUIS M. GOMEZ, School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University ROBERT LINN, School of Education, University of Colorado, Boulder C. KENT McGUIRE, College of Education, Temple University PETER McWALTERS, Rhode Island Department of Education, Providence HELEN R. QUINN, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA STEPHEN W. RAUDENBUSH, Department of Sociology, University of Chicago ROBERT SCHWARTZ, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University MARSHALL (MIKE) SMITH, The Hewlett Foundation, Menlo Park, CA CARY I. SNEIDER, Boston Museum of Science CATHERINE SNOW, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University SUZANNE WILSON, Department of Teacher Education, Michigan State University Ex Officio LORETTA SHEPARD (National Academy of Education), School of Education, University of Colorado, Boulder PATRICIA MORISON, Interim Director, Center for Education MARTIN ORLAND, Senior Program Director, Center for Education VIOLA HOREK, Manager, Program Operations DOROTHY MAJEWSKI, Administrative Assistant vi

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Acknowledgments T his report is the work of the Committee to Review the Title VI and Fulbright-Hays International Education Programs, a project of the National Research Council (NRC). The expertise and hard work of the committee was advanced by the support of our sponsor, the contribu- tions of able consultants and staff, and the input of outside experts and university officials. The funding for this project was provided by the U.S. Department of Education (ED). ED staff provided valuable insight into the programs and readily responded to numerous and repeated requests for financial and other data and other inquiries. Karla Ver Bryck Block, our project officer, provided continued support throughout the project, provided valuable clarification of multiple issues, and served as a valuable resource for the committee. Throughout this process, the committee benefited from oral or written input by individuals with a range of perspectives: Susan Beaudoin, U.S. De- partment of Education; Melissa H. Birch, Center for International Business Education and Research, University of Kansas; Robert Blake, University of California Language Consortium; Christine L. Brown, Glastonbury Public Schools; William Brustein, University Center for International Studies, Uni- versity of Pittsburgh; Diane Castiglione, U.S. Department of State; Mark Chichester, Institute for International Public Policy, The College Fund/ UNCF; Donna Christian, Center for Applied Linguistics; The Honorable David S.C. Chu, Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness; Carlotta Cooke Joyner, CCJ Consulting; Dan E. Davidson, American Coun- cils for International Education: ACTR/ACCELS; J. David Edwards, Joint National Committee for Languages and the National Council for Languages vii

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viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS and International Studies; Bradley Farnsworth, Center for International Business Education, Stephen M. Ross School of Business, University of Michigan; Albert Fishlow, Columbia University; William Foltz, Department of African Studies and Political Science, Yale University; Uliana Gabara, University of Richmond; Ralph Hines, U.S. Department of Education; In- teragency Language Roundtable—Frederick H. Jackson, Scott G. McGin- nis, and Glenn Nordin; Catharine Keatley, The National Capital Language Resource Center; Ben L. Kedia, Wang Center for International Business and Research and International MBA Program, University of Memphis; Michael D. Kennedy, Center for Russian and East European Studies and Center for European Studies/European Union Center, University of Michigan; Charles Kolb, Committee for Economic Development; Martin Kramer, The Wash- ington Institute for Near East Policy; Lewis Kraus, InfoUse; Stanley Kurtz, Hudson Institute; Mary Ellen Lane, Council of American Overseas Re- search Centers; Linda Lim, Stephen M. Ross School of Business and Center for Southeast Asian Studies, University of Michigan; Gilbert Merkx, Center for International Studies, Duke University; Barbara D. Metcalf, Center for South Asian Studies, University of Michigan; Kelly Jett Murphrey, Center for Study of Western Hemispheric Trade, Center for International Business Studies, May Business School, Texas A&M University; James Nye, South Asia Language and Area Center, University of Chicago; Patrick O’Meara, Indiana University; Steven Poulos, South Asia Language Resource Center, University of Chicago; Nancy L. Ruther, MacMillan Center for Interna- tional and Area Studies and Yale University; Sandra Sanneh, Yale Program in African Languages, Yale University; Ann Imlah Schneider, International Education Consultant, Washington, DC; Tony Stewart, North Carolina State University; Vivien Stewart, Asia Society; Mark Tessler, University of Michigan; Karla Ver Bryck Block, U.S. Department of Education; and David Wiley, African Studies Center, Michigan State University. We thank all of them for their valuable contributions, as well as the many people who attended the committee’s open sessions. We appreciate the contributions of several people who responded to inquiries from the committee between meetings, including Richard Bre- cht, National Foreign Language Center, University of Maryland; Miriam Kazanjian, Coalition for International Education; Carl Falsgraff, University of Oregon; Dorry Kenyon, Center for Applied Linguistics; Frederick H. Jackson, Interagency Language Roundtable and Foreign Service Institute; Rick A. Ruth and Lauren Marcott, Department of State; Robert O. Slater, National Security Education Program; and staff of the International Educa- tion Programs Service office. The committee also thanks those who wrote papers that were invalu- able to the committee’s discussions: Carlotta Cooke Joyner, CCJ Consult- ing; Margaret Malone, Center for Applied Linguistics; Nancy L. Ruther, MacMillan Center for International and Area Studies and Yale University;

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ix ACKNOWLEDGMENTS and Joanna Slater, independent consultant, New York City. Jeremy Browne, Brigham Young University, worked with the committee throughout the study, providing essential feedback on the EELIAS database and provided multiple analyses that aided the committee’s deliberations. The committee gained tremendous insight through site visits conducted at eight universities throughout the country. The committee met with uni- versity administrators, Title VI program directors and staff, and faculty, stu- dents, and librarians affiliated with the Title VI programs. We would like to thank all of them for the time they spent preparing materials for and meet- ing with committee members. In particular, we would like to thank Gilles Bousquet and Cynthia Williams from the University of Wisconsin-Madison; Kathy Bellows, Scott Fleming, and James O’Donnell from Georgetown Uni- versity; Carol Sigelman from the George Washington University; Amanda Ciccarelli and Patrick O’Meara from Indiana University; Pierre C. Hohen- berg, David McLaughlin, and Amber Min-Lee from New York University; Joanna Kukielka-Blaser and Jerry Ladman from Ohio State University; Makayla Branscomb, Nancy A. Marlin, and Alan Sweedler from San Diego State University; and German Esparza and Ronald Rogowski from the Uni- versity of California, Los Angeles, for their help facilitating the meetings. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the NRC. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical com- ments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: George Breslauer, Provost’s Office, University of California, Berkeley; Donna Christian, President’s Office, Center for Applied Linguistics, Wash- ington, DC; Ray T. Clifford, Center for Language Studies, Brigham Young University; A. Lee Fritschler, School of Public Policy, George Mason Uni- versity; Burkart Holzner, Department of Sociology, University of Pittsburgh; Catherine Ingold, Director’s Office, National Foreign Language Center, College Park, MD; Lyle V. Jones, L.L. Thurstone Psychometric Laboratory, University of North Carolina; Alfred Mockett, Office of the Chairman and CEO, Motive, Inc., Austin, TX; Michael Nacht, Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley; Robert Sparks, Senior As- sociate, California Medical Association Foundation, Sacramento, CA; and G. Richard Tucker, Department of Modern Languages, Carnegie Mellon University. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclu-

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x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS sions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Kenji Hakuta, School of Education, Stanford University, and Elena Nightingale, Scholar- in-Residence, Institute of Medicine. Appointed by the NRC, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. The committee appreciates the support provided by members of the Center for Education (CFE), under the leadership of Richard Murnane. We are grateful for the leadership and support of Michael Feuer, execu- tive director of the NRC’s Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (DBASSE); Martin Orland, senior program director of the CFE; and Patricia Morison, interim director of the CFE and associate director of DBASSE. The committee also acknowledges the exceptional contributions of the National Academies staff. Throughout its work, the committee benefited from the talent and knowledge of its study director, Mary Ellen O’Connell, who organized the work of the panel, brought together experts to share their experiences with the programs under review, found experts for com- missioned papers, and helped to guide the panel through the large amount of material submitted. Her tact and competence in managing many of the difficult questions that faced the panel were especially useful in bringing the project to a successful conclusion. Naomi Chudowsky and Monica Ulewicz conducted critical background research when the committee was first estab- lished, and Naomi’s ongoing contributions to the committee’s research and synthesis tasks were invaluable. Lori Wright analyzed reams of historical financial data, ensured their accuracy, and translated them into a digestible format for the committee. Margaret Hilton provided important leadership in helping to plan and conduct the committee’s site visits and helping to collect and synthesize materials for the committee. A final thanks is due to Mary Ann Kasper, who managed the numerous and often complicated ad- ministrative tasks of the committee with grace and competence. The panel feels very fortunate to have had them work with us. Finally, I especially thank the members of the committee for their willingness and dedication in wrestling with an important and complicated issue. Janet L. Norwood, Chair Committee to Review the Title VI and Fulbright-Hays International Education Programs

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Contents Acronyms xiii Executive Summary 1 PART I: The Title VI and Fulbright-Hays Programs 13 1 Introduction 15 2 Demand for Foreign Language, Area, and International Expertise 36 3 Title VI and Fulbright-Hays Implementation 58 PART II: Key Areas of Concern 83 4 Infusing a Foreign Language and Area Studies Dimension and Conducting Outreach and Dissemination 89 5 Reducing Shortages of Foreign Language and Area Experts 113 6 Supporting Research, Education and Training 140 7 Producing Relevant Instructional Materials 156 8 Advancing Uses of New Technology 171 9 Addressing Business Needs 182 10 Increasing the Numbers of Underrepresented Minorities in International Service 196 PART III: Important Next Steps 209 11 Monitoring, Evaluation, and Continuous Improvement 211 12 Looking Toward the Future 228 xi

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xii CONTENTS References and Bibliography 249 Appendixes A Legislative History 267 B The Committee’s Approach to Its Review 309 C Selection Criteria and Priorities in Title VI and Fulbright-Hays Programs 350 D A Brief History of Foreign Language Assessment in the United States 360 E Summary of Federal Foreign Language and Area Studies Programs 365 F Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff 372 Index 379

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Acronyms TITLE VI PROGRAMS AORC American Overseas Research Centers BIE Business and International Education CIBER (also CIBE) Centers for International Business Education and Research FLAS Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships IIPP Institute for International Public Policy IRS International Research and Studies LRC Language Resource Centers NRC National Resource Centers TICFIA Technological Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information Access UISFL Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language FULBRIGHT-HAYS PROGRAMS DDRA Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad FRA Faculty Research Abroad GPA Group Projects Abroad SA Seminars Abroad xiii

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xiv ACRONYMS OTHER ACRONYMS RELATED TO COMMITTEE WORK AAU Association of American Universities ACE American Council on Education ACIE American Councils for International Education ACLS American Council of Learned Societies ACTFL American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages ADFL Association of Department of Foreign Languages AIBER Association for International Business Education and Research CAORC Council of American Overseas Research Centers CAST computer-assisted screening tool CED Committee for Economic Development CIE Coalition for International Education CIES Council for International Exchange of Scholars CLRC Civilian Linguist Reserve Corps COPI Computerized Oral Proficiency Instrument CNRC Council of National Research Centers CPI Consumer Price Index CRS Congressional Research Service DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, formerly known as the Advanced Research Project Agency, U.S. Department of Defense DIA Defense Intelligence Agency DLI Defense Language Institute DoD U.S. Department of Defense ED U.S. Department of Education EELIAS Evaluation of Exchange, Language, International and Area Studies database FAO U.S. Army Foreign Area Officer Program FH Fulbright-Hays International Education Act (Section 102(b)(6)), formally known as the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act FIPSE Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education FLAP Foreign Language Assistance Program FSI Foreign Service Institute GAO Government Accountability Office, formerly known as General Accounting Office GPRA Government Performance and Results Act HBCUs historically black colleges and universities HEA Higher Education Act IB International Business Education (also IBE) IEPS International Education Programs Service

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xv ACRONYMS ILR Interagency Language Roundtable IPS International Programs and Studies IRIS International Resource Information System JNCL Joint National Committee for Languages LCTLs less commonly taught languages (e.g., Arabic, Chinese, Korean, Pashto) MLA Modern Language Association NCASA National Council of Area Studies Association NCOLCTL National Council of Organizations of Less Commonly Taught Languages NDEA National Defense Education Act NFLP National Flagship Language Program NSA National Security Agency NSEP National Security Education Program NSLI National Security Language Initiative OPE Office of Postsecondary Education, U.S. Department of Education OPEPD Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development, U.S. Department of Education OPI oral proficiency interview PART Program Assessment Rating Tool PPIA Public Policy and International Affairs Fellowship Program, formerly known as Woodrow Wilson Fellowships in Public Policy and nternational Affairs RFA request for applications SMART Science and Mathematics Access to Retain Talent SOFLO Special Operations Forces Command Foreign Language Office SOPI simulated oral proficiency interview SSRC Social Science Research Council Title VI Title VI of the Higher Education Act

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