EXPLORING OPPORTUNITIES IN GREEN CHEMISTRY AND ENGINEERING EDUCATION

A Workshop Summary to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable

Paul Anastas, Frankie Wood-Black, Tina Masciangioli, Ericka McGowan, and Laura Ruth, Editors

Chemical Sciences Roundtable

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu



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EXPLORING OPPORTUNITIES IN GREEN CHEMISTRY AND ENGINEERING EDUCATION A Workshop Summary to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable Paul Anastas, Frankie Wood-Black, Tina Masciangioli, Ericka McGowan, and Laura Ruth, Editors Chemical Sciences Roundtable Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Division on Earth and Life Studies

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Insti- tute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant DE-AT01- 94ER155535, the National Institutes of Health under Grant DHHS N01-OD-4-2139 (Task Order 25), and the National Science Foundation under Grant CHE-0621582. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-10352-7 International Standard Book Number-10 0-309-10352-5 Additional copies of this report are available from National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of further- ing knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general poli- cies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is admin- istered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council www.national-academies.org

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CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE Cochairs F. FLEMING CRIM (NAS), University of Wisconsin, Madison MARY L. MANDICH, Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ Members PAUL ANASTAS, Green Chemistry Institute, Washington, DC PATRICIA A. BAISDEN, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA MICHAEL R. BERMAN, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Arlington, VA APURBA BHATTACHARYA, Texas A&M, Kingsville, TX LEONARD J. BUCKLEY, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, VA WILLIAM F. CARROLL, JR., Occidental Chemical Corporation, Dallas, TX CHARLES P. CASEY (NAS), University of Wisconsin, Madison JOHN C. CHEN, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA ARTHUR B. ELLIS, National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA GARY J. FOLEY, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC TERESA FRYBERGER, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC ALEX HARRIS, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY SHARON HAYNIE, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, DE NED D. HEINDEL, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA CAROL J. HENRY, American Chemistry Council, Arlington, VA PAUL F. MCKENZIE, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, New Brunswick, NJ GEOFFREY PRENTICE, National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA MARQUITA M. QUALLS, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA DOUGLAS RAY, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA GERALDINE L. RICHMOND, University of Oregon, Eugene MICHAEL E. ROGERS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD ERIC ROLFING, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC FRANKIE WOOD-BLACK, Conoco-Phillips, Ponca City, OK National Research Council Staff DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Program Officer ERICKA M. MCGOWAN, Associate Program Officer SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate DAVID C. RASMUSSEN, Senior Project Assistant iv

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BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY Cochairs ELSA REICHMANIS (NAE), Lucent Technologies F. FLEMING CRIM (NAS), University of Wisconsin Members PAUL T. ANASTAS, Green Chemistry Institute, Washington, DC GARY S. CALABRESE, Rohm & Haas Company, Philadelphia, PA JEAN DE GRAEVE, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium PABLO DEBENEDETTI (NAE), Princeton University, Princeton, NJ MILES P. DRAKE, Weyerhauser Company, Federal Way, WA GEORGE W. FLYNN (NAS), Columbia University, New York, NY MAURICIO FUTRAN (NAE), Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, New Brunswick, NJ PAULA T. HAMMOND, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA ROBERT HWANG, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM JAY V. IHLENFELD, 3M Research & Development, St. Paul, MN JAMES L. KINSEY (NAS), Rice University, Houston, TX MARTHA A. KREBS, California Energy Commission, Sacramento CHARLES T. KRESGE, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI SCOTT J. MILLER, Yale University, New Haven, CT GERALD V. POJE, Independent Consultant, Vienna, VA DONALD PROSNITZ, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA MATTHEW V. TIRRELL (NAE), University of California, Santa Barbara National Research Council Staff DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Program Officer ERICKA M. MCGOWAN, Associate Program Officer SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate JESSICA PULLEN, Research Assistant DAVID C. RASMUSSEN, Senior Project Assistant FEDERICO SAN MARTINI, Associate Program Officer v

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Preface Awareness of issues related to the environment—the need to conserve, the need for pollution minimization, the need to design for the future—have become part of the social dialog. It is seen in advertising: “green” in car commercials. It is seen at the grocery store: “paper or plastic?” It is seen in our personal energy use: “Do you choose the company that gets part of its electricity from renewable sources or standard resources?” It is part of the voting platforms—balancing the needs of having national parks with exploration and utiliza- tion of resources. Although these discussions are occurring in many different sectors of society, contradictory actions are also taking place. Most people still drive to work—increas- ing the need for more energy sources that are transportable. There is still a level of consum- erism that leads to new waste streams, such as electronic waste (e.g., dead computers, cell phones that are no longer in vogue, personal data assistants). The list of such examples is long. This is not just an issue in the United States. Similar trends are occurring in Europe, Asia, and other parts of the world as we all strive for better standards of living without always considering the potential environmental impacts. All of these factors are drivers for the dis- cussion of green chemistry and engineering. We need to understand the consequences of our actions, what the choices are, how the selection of one choice over another impacts our future, and how to develop and invent alternatives and solutions that improve the current state of our world. In an effort to advance the discussion of green chemistry and engineering, the National Academies’ Chemical Sciences Roundtable (CSR) held a workshop in November 2005 that was designed to look at the current state of green chemistry and green engineering education; to raise awareness about the tools that are available but may not yet be fully implemented across educational institutions; and to highlight promising new areas that are yet to be fully explored. This workshop was a chance to gather information, share ideas, and develop a platform from which the scientific and engineering community can address some particularly challenging issues. This document summarizes the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop. In accordance with the policies of the CSR, the workshop did not attempt to establish any consensus conclusions or recommendations about the needs and future direc- tions to be taken, focusing instead on the issues identified by the speakers. Understanding and knowledge are essential to developing a sustainable future. The chemical sciences and engineering community have a very special role to play in fulfilling that future by the development of new materials, understanding the toxicity of materials, developing new fuel sources, and understanding how chemical processes impact the environ- ment. Yet, we are caught in between the present and implementing change in the future. Challenges are coming toward us at an ever faster pace, and it will take the energy, drive, and mental capacity of us all to meet them. Paul Anastas and Frankie Wood-Black Workshop Organizers vii

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this indepen- dent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published workshop summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the sum- mary meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the work- shop charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this workshop summary: Dr. Martin Abraham, University of Toledo Dr. Joseph Fortunak, Howard University Dr. Patricia Hogan, Suffolk University Dr. Phillip Jessop, Queens University Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this workshop summary was overseen by Dr. Jeffrey Siirola of Eastman Chemical Company. Appointed by the Division on Earth and Life Studies, he was respon- sible for making certain that an independent examination of this workshop summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this workshop summary rests entirely with the authors and the institution. ix

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Contents 1 Overview 1 2 Current Status 3 3 Tools and Materials 8 4 Where Do We Go from Here? 17 5 Overarching Curricula and Implementation Ideas 25 APPENDIXES A Summary of Pre-Workshop Participant Survey 29 B Summary of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering Education Efforts 31 C Workshop Agenda 34 D Biographies 36 E Workshop Attendees 41 F Origin of and Information on the Chemical Sciences Roundtable 43 xi

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