4
Where Do We Go from Here?

During the first day of the workshop, the discussion centered on current green chemistry education accomplishments. During the second and final day of the workshop, the participants brainstormed about the future direction of green chemistry education. Workshop organizer Paul Anastas stated that this session aimed to capture the best thoughts, strategies, and tactics about green chemistry education capabilities and motivations. The session began with talks by four main speakers, followed by five panel speakers.

MAIN SPEAKERS

The first main speaker in this session was Dr. F. Fleming Crim from the University of Wisconsin. Dr. Crim has multiple perspectives since he is a college professor, chair of the Chemical Sciences Roundtable, which was the birthplace of this workshop, and a member of the American Chemical Society’s Committee on Professional Training (CPT). Crim first presented his CPT perspective and the role CPT can play to facilitate green chemistry into curricula. The general goals of the CPT are:

  • The promotion of excellence in chemistry education and in professional training of chemists;

  • The gathering and dissemination of information that maintains and improves the quality of chemistry education beyond the secondary level;

  • The facilitation of refinements and changes in chemistry education that reflect the modern and evolving face of the discipline; and

  • The maintenance and enhancement of an effective approval procedure for undergraduate chemistry programs that benefits the programs, students, and employers by providing the greatest return on their efforts and those of the committee and staff.

Since CPT plays a role in the ACS approval program for chemistry undergraduate programs, CPT would like to facilitate bottom-up change to implement the use of green chemistry in undergraduate curricula. CPT’s role in bottom-up change would first be to define an excellent green chemistry education program and then let the community respond.

Crim mentioned that there are a few details to note about a curriculum development process. First, there are many good competitive ideas in the marketplace and green chemistry is competing with nanoscience, chemical biology, and others. Therefore, more publicity and advocacy for green chemistry may be needed to bring it to the forefront of other ideas. Crim emphasized faculty acceptance as another issue. He said that most faculty members seem to be receptive to green chemistry in the curriculum but are overwhelmed with an already full curriculum. Because CPT is working on integrating more flexibility into the curriculum, Crim encourages advocates of green chemistry to become involved in the CPT process.

According to Crim, the three most important things to make changes occur are materials, materials, and materials. Crim suggested that if infusing green chemistry into the curriculum broadly is the preferred approach, low-entry barrier and bite-sized increments are needed to appeal to overwhelmed faculty. On behalf of CPT, Crim offered the CPT newsletter as a forum to provide green chemistry examples or links to green chemistry materials to the community.

Crim spoke next from the R1 perspective. According to Crim, there are a few things that the community could do to change the opinions of R1 institutions. Again, providing materials is essential since R1 faculty do not feel that they have time to create new materials. Second, highlighting intellectual opportunities within green chemistry and advocating funding for green chemistry research is needed because both funding and intellectual opportunities drive R1 re



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4 Where Do We Go from Here? During the first day of the workshop, the discussion cen- Since CPT plays a role in the ACS approval program for tered on current green chemistry education accomplish- chemistry undergraduate programs, CPT would like to fa- ments. During the second and final day of the workshop, the cilitate bottom-up change to implement the use of green participants brainstormed about the future direction of green chemistry in undergraduate curricula. CPT’s role in bottom- chemistry education. Workshop organizer Paul Anastas up change would first be to define an excellent green chem- stated that this session aimed to capture the best thoughts, istry education program and then let the community respond. strategies, and tactics about green chemistry education capa- Crim mentioned that there are a few details to note about bilities and motivations. The session began with talks by four a curriculum development process. First, there are many main speakers, followed by five panel speakers. good competitive ideas in the marketplace and green chem- istry is competing with nanoscience, chemical biology, and others. Therefore, more publicity and advocacy for green MAIN SPEAKERS chemistry may be needed to bring it to the forefront of other The first main speaker in this session was Dr. F. Fleming ideas. Crim emphasized faculty acceptance as another issue. Crim from the University of Wisconsin. Dr. Crim has mul- He said that most faculty members seem to be receptive to tiple perspectives since he is a college professor, chair of the green chemistry in the curriculum but are overwhelmed with Chemical Sciences Roundtable, which was the birthplace of an already full curriculum. Because CPT is working on inte- this workshop, and a member of the American Chemical grating more flexibility into the curriculum, Crim encour- Society’s Committee on Professional Training (CPT). Crim ages advocates of green chemistry to become involved in the first presented his CPT perspective and the role CPT can CPT process. play to facilitate green chemistry into curricula. The general According to Crim, the three most important things to goals of the CPT are: make changes occur are materials, materials, and materials. Crim suggested that if infusing green chemistry into the cur- • The promotion of excellence in chemistry educa- riculum broadly is the preferred approach, low-entry barrier tion and in professional training of chemists; and bite-sized increments are needed to appeal to over- • The gathering and dissemination of information that whelmed faculty. On behalf of CPT, Crim offered the CPT maintains and improves the quality of chemistry education newsletter as a forum to provide green chemistry examples beyond the secondary level; or links to green chemistry materials to the community. • The facilitation of refinements and changes in Crim spoke next from the R1 perspective. According to chemistry education that reflect the modern and evolving Crim, there are a few things that the community could do to face of the discipline; and change the opinions of R1 institutions. Again, providing • The maintenance and enhancement of an effective materials is essential since R1 faculty do not feel that they approval procedure for undergraduate chemistry programs have time to create new materials. Second, highlighting in- that benefits the programs, students, and employers by pro- tellectual opportunities within green chemistry and advocat- viding the greatest return on their efforts and those of the ing funding for green chemistry research is needed because committee and staff. both funding and intellectual opportunities drive R1 re- 17

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18 EXPLORING OPPORTUNITIES IN GREEN CHEMISTRY search. Third, Crim thought that “teaching the organizing gal, economic, and political), but most engineers do not have principles of chemistry, science, and physical science within expertise in these areas. Possessing knowledge of these so- the context of green chemistry is extremely important and cial systems could allow engineers to become more politi- also appeals to people who are not necessarily in the main- cally and socially sensitive, as well as help scientists pro- stream of green chemistry.” He said that when advocating mote important agendas, such as sustainability. for green chemistry, the argument should be presented in a fashion that suggests that green chemistry rests on the core Davidson next spoke of the Carnegie Mellon initiative organizing principles of chemistry. Fourth, Crim pointed out “Environment Across the Curriculum.” The initiative goal is that some factions of the community perceive green chemis- to introduce environmental modules into nonenvironmental try as soft science. Crim suggested this may come from ad- courses. Davidson provided many examples of successful vocating that green chemistry and engineering is socially environmental modules being integrated into departments responsible. This perspective may not appeal to those at the across other college campuses “core” of chemistry. Talking about the organizing principles Lastly, Davidson discussed the Center for Sustainable and the intellectual opportunity of green chemistry may also Engineering, a team effort from Carnegie Mellon Univer- be more appealing to those who reject the social argument. sity, Arizona State University, and University of Texas at The next speaker in this session was Dr. Cliff Davidson Austin with support from the National Science Foundation from Carnegie Mellon University’s Environmental Institute. and EPA. The center’s goal is to “develop and implement Davidson divided his talk into four topic areas: (1) skills and activities to enhance education in sustainable engineering at colleges and universities around the world.”1 Workshops for attitudes that future engineers will need; (2) environment across the curriculum initiative; (3) case studies in green engineering faculty who would like to add sustainable engi- engineering; and (4) center for sustainable engineering: A neering to courses began in July 2006. three-university consortium comprising Carnegie Mellon, A second activity is a Web site called Bookbuild that is University of Texas at Austin, and Arizona State University. a partnership between the three universities and Pearson/ Davidson believes that to move green engineering for- Prentice Hall. Bookbuild will be a global hub for faculty to ward, engineers need to “go beyond reductionist thinking, submit and share lecture materials, notes, slides, handouts, where each part of a complex system is considered sepa- and other engineering educational materials. All materials rately—emphasize the emergent properties of the whole.” submitted to this Web site will be subject to peer review. The skills and attitudes future engineers will need are: Another activity for the center is a benchmark assess- ment of the status, including materials, of sustainable engi- • Sensitivity to the environment—Exposing engi- neering activities in U.S. engineering departments. Davidson neering students to issues of the environment is becoming of left the audience with the message that changing engineer- increasing importance. Environmental engineers ponder ing courses is necessary to teach engineers green skills and whether education can transform students who are not envi- attitudes. ronmentally sensitive or whether it is the responsibility of Next, Dr. Terrance Collins, director of the Institute for the environmental engineering community to proactively Green Oxidation Chemistry at Carnegie Mellon University, recruit students that are environmentally sensitive into engi- provided his perspective on “Where do we go from here?” neering. He explained that the goal of the institute is to perform world- • Sensitivity to human needs—Educating students leading research in green oxidation analysis. The institute is about sustainable engineering to increase humanist interests very important in green chemistry because the first green is not the norm but may need to be taken into consideration chemistry course was taught there in 1992, and it continues in engineering education. to be offered to upper level undergraduates and beginning • An ethical foundation—According to Davidson, the graduate students. It is clear that green chemistry has been engineering practice lacks a strong environmental ethic as a on Collins’s and his colleagues’ minds for quite some time. basis for decisions, yet sustainability issues are becoming a Collins has trained students who have won many awards, part of engineers’ ethical responsibilities. Many engineers including the Alexander von Humboldt Postdoctoral, are faced with scenarios in which they have clients who are Beckman, Goldwater, and Hancock, and in his opinion, these not supportive of environmental preservation. Davidson be- people are the next leaders in green chemistry. lieves that exposing students to this dilemma in class will According to Collins, “sustainability is the single most better prepare them for future challenges. important challenge for our civilization for at least the next • Understanding of natural systems—An understand- 100 years.” Collins stated that the cause of our sustainability ing of natural systems (i.e., ecosystems) from the life sci- problem is science and technology, which is controversial ences, physics, and chemistry, perspectives is necessary for for the universities and disciplines since they are also re- engineers of sustainable design. • Understanding of social systems—Engineering de- cisions are made in the context of societal systems (e.g., le- 1http://www.csengin.org/.

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19 WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE? FIGURE 4.1 Chemical goals for sustainability. SOURCE: Collins, T. 2005. Where Do We Go from Here to Green Our Civilization through Science? Presentation at the National Academies Chemical Sciences Roundtable Green Chemistry and Engineering Education Workshop. November 8, 2005. sponsible for developing the science and technology. Al- During those times, people did not think that what they were though various federal funding agencies and private founda- presently doing could impact people in the future. That tions support the green chemistry efforts at Carnegie Mellon, premise has changed. What we are doing today is going to many universities are not willing to risk losing funding in impact the welfare of many future generations because of order to address sustainability issues. Collins believes that our power over the ecosphere through science and technol- any university that wants to be an honest actor in ogy. Collins believes that recognizing this future impact prin- sustainability must be prepared to deal with controversy. ciple and building upon it is essential and, therefore, green Collins pointed out, however, that leadership has come from chemistry is essential. of people such as Paul Anastas and the workshop audience Next Collins presented the chemical goals for to drive universities toward the important issue of sustainability (see Figure 4.1). sustainability. The first goal discussed was safe energy. In Collins’s Collins paraphrased Hans Jonas’s The Imperative of opinion we do not have an energy problem; we have an en- Responsibility: Finding an Ethics for the Technological ergy policy problem. Collins believes that if a sustainable Age2 by saying that “all previous ethics have been based on technology base is developed, the energy problem would be the premises that the human condition is determined by the nonexistent, and we will have safe energy. According to nature of man and the nature of things.” He gave the analogy Collins, safe energy equals solar energy, and we need new of living in ancient times where the people thought that what chemistry for solar-to-electrical or solar-to-chemical energy they did impacted only the people they came in contact with. conversions to achieve this goal. The second chemical goal for sustainability that Collins presented was renewable feedstocks. Economical feedstocks 2Jonas, Hans. 1984. The Imperative of Responsibility: In Search of an for chemical and polymer industries from plants are needed. Ethics for the Technological Age. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

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20 EXPLORING OPPORTUNITIES IN GREEN CHEMISTRY Collins believes that we can get the things we need out of proach also embraces a necessary holistic approach. One way recently dead plant matter rather than fossilized plant mat- she is trying to achieve this is through the EPA P3 (People, ter, and this is an active area of industrial research. Prosperity, and the Planet) competition that asks students to The final chemical goal for sustainability was pollution identify what they see as a challenge to sustainability and reduction. Collins believes that this can be done by moving propose a scientific, technical, or policy solution The pro- the elemental composition of technology closer to biochem- posals are peer reviewed, and outstanding applicants are istry to eliminate persistent environmentally mobile pollut- given $10,000 grants to perform their proposed work. Grant- ants. Collins’s research group is focused on this goal. In par- ees are required to develop an interdisciplinary team and to ticular, Collins promotes solar Stirling engines. Robert quantify the benefits of their design environmentally, eco- Stirling invented the Stirling engine in 1816. The engine nomically, and socially. At the end of the $10,000 academic works on a heat differential and because it does not have award, students participate in a second round of competition explosions in the pistons or make noise, has been used in in Washington, DC. Six winners from the second round are nuclear submarines. awarded phase two funding. The funding gives the winning Lastly, Collins discussed the enormous stakes of failing grantees $75,000 grants to further develop their designs and to address toxicity and ecotoxicity. He first highlighted labo- move toward commercialization. The program has spawned ratory research that exposed pregnant rats to a mixture of entrepreneurship and innovation, such as student teams de- DDT and vinclozolin. The male offspring experienced se- veloping courses and start-up companies. vere reproductive damage up to four generations later. He For those who work on college campuses, Zimmerman also noted the research revealing developmental impairment explained how there are many opportunities to integrate due to lead toxicity. Lead toxicity is still a problem today in sustainability into the physical infrastructure of the campus. places where lead is persistent in drinking water. Collins The opportunities include transportation decisions, where to stressed that failing to address environmental toxicity issues put new buildings, energy, and managing hazardous waste, could have severe repercussions in the future. and these particular influences can be measured, which gives The final main speaker in this session, Dr. Julie a means for measuring the impact of sustainability decisions. Zimmerman from the EPA and the University of Virginia, Zimmerman devoted the final portion of her talk to the followed Collins’s concerns about toxicity and focused on intellectual pipeline of people. Zimmerman feels that this is how design decisions impact cost, waste, and the environ- the time to embark on the issues of ethnic and gender diver- ment. Zimmerman stressed the importance of big picture sity in the workforce. If this issue is addressed now, when questions, such as investments, time, energy, resources, sustainability has the attention of the scientific community, money, and potential realized benefits, rather than just de- we can gain the benefit of a diverse workforce that is en- sign questions. To impact all of these elements, Zimmerman gaged in and trained in sustainability. highlighted three steps to change design procedures: (1) op- timize the existing solution; (2) reengineer the system; and PANEL SPEAKERS (3) redefine the problem. According to Zimmerman, the same challenges occur Dr. Linda Vanasupa from California Polytechnic State when designing a new curriculum and designing new prod- University was the first panelist of this session. Vanasupa’s ucts and processes. Zimmerman stressed that introducing discussion focused on curricula stemming from scientific business, social science, service, production, and design at discovery and the human dimension of designing curricula. an early stage will help move toward a more integrated cur- When designing curricula, the ultimate goal is to produce riculum with multidisciplinary teams. Zimmerman men- scientists, engineers, technologists, and practitioners who are tioned 10 disciplines for incorporating sustainability in prod- capable of practicing or applying sustainable solutions. uct design: These solutions should also reflect the society they serve. Although there are adequate numbers of students in the 1. Research and extract engineering, pipeline, ideas of how to attract the people that reflect soci- 2. Materials science, ety (i.e., societal demographics) and of how to retain them in 3. Mechanical engineering, science and engineering programs are necessary. For ex- 4. Chemistry, ample, there are a number of studies about why women drop 5. Chemical engineering, out of engineering. The basic reason for women leaving en- 6. Manufacturing engineering, gineering is because they do not see engineering as relevant 7. Civil engineering, to their life goals. Caltech received a grant from the National 8. Environmental science, Science Foundation that they are using to attract a diverse 9. Social science, and population of applicants. One tactic that was used was an e- 10. Policy making. mail message that was sent to high school students in Cali- fornia, but the message did not aid Caltech in achieving its Zimmerman believes that the multidisciplinary ap- goal of attracting a diverse population of applicants. It at-

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21 WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE? tracted only two female students. The message was rede- • Developing a collaborative green chemistry effort signed to appeal to a different audience. Vanasupa high- between R&D and manufacturing; lighted several best practices to help retain all students: • Creating of a green chemistry advocate process re- search position; • Systems thinking; • Joining the ACS Green Chemistry Pharmaceutical • Meaningful context; Roundtable in 2005; • Integration of support subject domains; • Fostering early stage environmental process review • Interaction with faculty as coaches; to identify opportunities for waste minimization, recycling, • Active learning and design; and process streamlining prior to production; • Connection with peers; • Developing a process research mission statement • Reflection and self-assessment of learning; and that embodies principles of green chemistry: • Emphasis on the American Board for Engineering o “Definition and demonstration of practical, and Technology’s (ABET) “other” design constraints. scalable, efficient, cost effective and environmentally benign chemical processes.” The next panel speaker, Dr. John Leazer of Merck Co., • Starting initiatives in both chemical and discussed green chemistry from the pharmaceutical industry biocatalysis research: perspective, where innovation drives the use and implemen- o Reaction optimization; tation of green chemistry. Leazer sees green chemistry as a o Atom economy, minimal waste, minimal metal contributor to industry goals of innovation, efficient pro- usage, fewer protecting groups, no chiral auxiliaries; and cesses, and integrated business flow through several efforts. o High throughput screening and miniaturization He explained how the efforts comprise demanding excep- that reduce reagent and solvent usage. tional chemistry, teamwork, integration of discovery and • Using supercritical fluids rather than traditional manufacturing objectives, cost-effective processes, en- chromatography to reduce solvent and energy use; and hanced safety, and quality performance. Leazer emphasized • Providing education and training through seminars that green chemistry is a business advantage because it can and symposiums. be key to achieving other initiatives, such as: Leazer explained how these efforts motivate chemists to be • Product optimization; cognizant of waste and total mass balance of processes, op- • Energy conservation; portunities for recycling, less hazardous reagents, and sol- • Lean manufacturing; vent minimization. • Operational excellence; In closing, Leazer emphasized several points for green • Sustainability; chemistry education. First, Leazer emphasized the importance • Technical leadership; of having a thorough understanding of chemistry with green • Enhanced productivity; and chemistry being taught in addition to core competences. Sec- • Get it right the first time. ond, he underscored the need to more closely align academia and industry. Third, he stated the need for public outreach Merck is one company with leading activity in green initiatives because “they (the public) don’t hear chemical it- chemistry. The company received the Presidential Green self, they hear toxic chemical.” Lastly, Leazer emphasized the Chemistry and ICHEME Astra Zeneca awards for focusing empowerment of critical development technologies to offset on the 12 principles of green chemistry and for solid efforts green chemistry investments. to implement green chemistry.3 Buy-in at the highest levels Dr. James Mihelcic from Michigan Technological Uni- of Merck influences the status of green chemistry at Merck. versity was the next panelist to speak. Focusing on the theme Sponsorship and buy-in at the highest levels of the research of partnerships, he divided his talk into three sections: (1) and manufacturing divisions have made implementation of the integration of green chemistry and engineering with green chemistry successful at Merck. To substantiate these sustainability; (2) the global perspective, and (3) the issues goals Leazer quoted Paul Anastas and John Warner as say- of diversity. Mihelcic stated, “We need to teach our students ing, “The use of auxiliary substances should be made unnec- how green chemistry and engineering will generate wealth essary wherever possible and innocuous when used.” Ex- for society and industries they work for, and importantly, amples of Merck’s efforts to use green chemistry are: how it will make our nation globally competitive.” Mihelcic continued that the nation’s global competitiveness will ulti- mately depend on how schools, colleges, universities, and other education providers from (precollege through postdoctoral training) develop and refine human resources. 3For more information on the 12 principles of green chemistry and engi- Mihelcic spoke in detail about Michigan Tech’s National neering, see the following Web site: http://www.chemistry.org/portal/a/c/s/ Science Foundation IGERT doctoral training grant that follows 1/acsdisplay.html?DOC=greenchemistryinstitute\whatare.html.

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22 EXPLORING OPPORTUNITIES IN GREEN CHEMISTRY FIGURE 4.2 The sustainability triangle. SOURCE: Mihelcic, J. 2005. NAS Green Chemistry/Engineering Workshop: Where Do We Go from Here in Green Chemistry and Engineering Education? Presentation at the National Academies Chemical Sciences Roundtable Green Chemistry and Engineering Education Workshop. November 8, 2005. a sustainable future model. The model has economic and indus- gan and the Mississippi River in the South. The collaboration trial, environmental, and societal components (see Figure 4.2). allows diversification of participating faculty members at each In addition to teaching students about the three components, school by offering joint appointments at both universities, pro- Mihelcic encouraged teaching students the business aspect gram offerings, and students. of education as well. The next panel speaker was Dr. Jorge Vanegas, formerly Next Mihelcic focused on the opportunity to educate, as of Georgia Institute of Technology. Vanegas has a back- well as retain, students with global thinking because the de- ground in architecture, construction, and civil engineering veloping world’s problems are related to water, soil, agricul- that provided a very different perspective from chemistry ture, forestry, and fisheries rather than the manufacturing in and engineering. He spoke about strategies and approaches the modern world. Mihelcic displayed a quote from National necessary to make green efforts happen based on Georgia Academy of Engineering President William Wulf: “We need Tech’s green efforts. The strategies and approaches he sug- to understand why in a society so dependent on technology, a gested were a mission statement, a comprehensive philo- society that benefits so richly from the results of engineering, sophical approach, a goal, a long-term plan, support from a society that rewards engineers so well, engineering isn’t per- the top, results, campus-wide integration and coordination, ceived as a desirable profession. . . . Our profession is dimin- appropriate infrastructure, and money: ished and impoverished by a lack of diversity.” Mihelcic cited Michigan Tech’s and Southern University and A&M • A mission—Through many efforts, Georgia Tech’s College’s joint engineering and public policy Ph.D. programs, mission now includes sustainability. supported by National Science Foundation IGERT and REU • A comprehensive philosophical approach—This ap- grants, as an example of global education. The partnership proach includes learning in the classroom, discovery in the relates sustainability issues between the Great Lakes in Michi- research laboratory, and active management of the campus.

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23 WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE? • A goal—Students, faculty, and staff need to under- doing green chemistry for several years. On the construc- stand their respective roles in creating a more prosperous tion, engineering, and architecture side of things, Georgia and sustainable society to be in line with the vision. Tech is demolishing parking lots to create green space, pro- • A long-term plan—The plan must begin with en- viding alternative campus transportation, constructing new buildings that are LEED4 certified, and planting trees as part gaging the faculty by creating a grassroots-driven vision. Curricular innovation for all students in every major must be of a campus-wide tree canopy renewal. Another part of walk- achieved. Implementing reliable campus practices can build ing the walk is in investments. For example, Georgia Tech is trust and credibility. Being in possession of a passionate ad- investing in focused research programs such as organic pho- vocate could help move your vision forward. tovoltaics, the Center for Bio-inspired Design, and closed- • Support from the top—Institutional commitment loop production systems. Vanegas encouraged the audience and an institute-wide agenda will encourage the support to carpe diem, carpe noctum, and carpe momento, which needed from top-level institutional officials. means seize the day, seize the night, and seize the moment. • Results—Two Georgia Tech faculty members who Dr. Liz Gron from Hendrix College was the final work- have collaborated for more than 15 years on sustainable shop panelist. Gron talked about educating green citizens. She chemical processes are among the winners of 2004 Presi- began her presentation by showing who the green community dential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards. Other examples is now and who it could be. Gron said that it is possible that of results could be published journal articles or recognition implementation of a green curriculum could expand the cur- from the scientific community. rent community, many of whom were at the workshop, to in- • A campus-wide mechanism for integration and co- clude all undergraduate majors. Of the 2.5 million first-time ordination. The Institute for Sustainable Technology and college freshmen, 70 percent had no interest in scientific or Development at Georgia Tech serves in this capacity. The professional studies, 12 percent were interested in professional institute encourages activities in education and research and studies, 7 percent were interested in biology, and 11 percent managing the campus and stimulates activities with other were interested in the physical sciences. Although focus needs universities and industry. to be put on retaining the students interested in the physical • Appropriate infrastructure. For example, at Geor- sciences (only 0.6 percent of the 11 percent interested in physi- gia Tech, interdisciplinary research neighborhoods have cal science graduated in chemistry or engineering), Gron be- been created to enhance collaboration and innovation. lieves that the vision needs to be expanded to include green • Effective strategies and tools are necessary in edu- scientists and professionals. cation, research, and campus wide to influence change. Gron then discussed the Green-Soil and Water Analysis o Education at Toad-Suck (Green-SWAT) Laboratory Program at ■ Strategies for education include using ex- Hendrix College. This program teaches green, analytical, and isting curricula and integrating new concepts into environmental chemistry to introductory students, which major programs and general studies. Gron feels is working because it dispels the exclusivity of ■ Tools needed for education include special environmental chemistry. This is achieved by teaching in- initiatives, curriculum committees, academic sup- troductory students, cultivating environmentally and scien- port, accreditation self-studies, and assessment. tifically “savvy” students, and instilling a green ethic in stu- o Research dents. The results of these efforts, in turn, influence the ■ Strategies for research include enhancing students’ future professional, business, or personal choices. existing R&D programs and fostering new R&D Gron identified two challenges for teaching green chem- programs for faculty development. istry but also provided ways to overcome these challenges. ■ Tools for research include research facili- Gron recommends the following actions to move green ideas ties, faculty recruitment, endowed chairs, “seed” from a local audience to a global audience and to overcome funds, centers, and initiatives. the challenges: o The campus ■ The campus strategy is to weave concepts • Create and encourage local educational initiatives of sustainability into policies and procedures. o Small and large efforts, including outreach ac- ■ Tools for the campus include the campus tivities and/or whole majors master plan, operations, and purchasing guidelines. • National initiatives • Money—In addition to funding, Georgia Tech has o Start-up funding to encourage the smaller com- 21 endowed chairs and professorships that are related to panies to invest in green chemistry principles sustainability, which makes sustainability an integral part of its capital campaign. 4The LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Green Building Rating System® is a voluntary, consensus-based national stan- Lastly, Vanegas stated that it was necessary to “walk dard for developing high-performance, sustainable buildings sponsored by the walk.” According to Vanegas, Georgia Tech has been the U.S. Green Building Council (www.usgbc.org).

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24 EXPLORING OPPORTUNITIES IN GREEN CHEMISTRY • Disseminate information • Connecting green chemistry and engineering to o Forums and symposiums; major sustainability issues; o Journal and newspaper articles; and • Indicating the need for green chemistry or engineer- o Textbooks. ing experience in employment announcements; • Utilizing ACS for proposing short courses in green Gron concluded that the current community must be pre- chemistry and engineering; and pared to encourage people into green chemistry and every- • Recruiting ACS members to buy into green chem- thing else will follow. istry and engineering by teaching it and speaking about it. BREAKOUT SESSIONS Green Chemistry and Green Engineering in Future Curriculum On the second day of the workshop, breakout sessions allowed participants to delve deeper into the issues surround- The participants identified ways that green chemistry ing green chemistry and engineering. Workshop participants and engineering could be incorporated into future curricula. were assigned to breakout groups, and the results of those Most participants believed that the following items are breakout sessions that corresponded with the session on needed to implement green principles into curricula: “Where do we go from here?” in green chemistry and engi- neering education are listed below. • Provision of high-quality materials and resources, such as: 1. Improvements to current materials and re- Creating Incentives, Removing Impediments sources by replacing lessons in books that incorporate In this breakout session, participants explored green green chemistry and engineering; chemistry and engineering incentives, impediments, and 2. An overall intellectual framework for green ways to remove the impediments in both academia and in- chemistry and engineering modules; dustry. The absence of a clear vision statement and the lack 3. Seminars centered on green chemistry and en- of scientists in the policy-making arena pose significant bar- gineering; and riers for both academia and industry. The participants ac- 4. Published articles highlighting green chemistry knowledged that potential regulatory barriers in industry and engineering in major academic journals. exist. There was also a general feeling that industry will not • Development of interdisciplinary interactions by adopt green principles unless there is market demand. In finding simple access points in other disciplines where green academia there are inadequate numbers of faculty trained in chemistry and engineering are applicable; green chemistry and engineering, a lack of available tools, a • Recognition through awards; and competition between green and traditional coursework, a • Changes to current curricula to accommodate green lack of time for approval or implementation, and tenure cri- chemistry and engineering, such as: teria not viewing green chemistry as a rigorous discipline. 1. Offering green chemistry and engineering elec- The group was able to identify incentives for academia tives; and and industry. For industry regulations, ISO-like certification 2. Having laboratory managers incorporate green and a viable market could act as incentives for companies to chemistry and engineering concepts into laboratory ex- adopt green processes. Other ideas for incentives for periments at all levels. academia and industry that could potentially raise awareness and decrease skepticism included: The subject of developing specific degree tracks in green chemistry and engineering raised a number of differing • Presenting awards for excellence in green chemis- views in the breakout session. Some participants believed try and engineering education, possibly connected to Green that green chemistry and engineering need to be an integral Chemistry Challenge awards; part of all good degree programs and taught in an interdisci- • Having more leaders in green chemistry and engi- plinary manner at the graduate level. However, these partici- neering speak at general conferences and meetings; pants thought that a specific degree track would limit a de- • Developing materials that explain the relevance of gree candidate’s career opportunities. There were other green chemistry and engineering to other areas, such as participants that supported the idea of a specific degree track. policy, economics, and public health; The group suggested that a master’s-level program leading • Providing business cases based on real examples to to a Ph.D. degree could fill a niche that a Ph.D. program encourage industry; alone cannot fill. Most participants agreed that an under- • Highlighting green principles in university and in- graduate degree was not appropriate because Bachelor of dustry wide publications; Science graduates are trained to be generalists; graduate de- gree programs are more specialized.