3
Tools and Materials

In the next portion of the workshop, speakers and panel members focused on effective green chemistry and engineering educational programs, materials, and teaching tools, including computer software. The session started with talks by four main speakers, followed by four panel speakers.

MAIN SPEAKERS

The first speaker, Dr. Julie Haack from the University of Oregon, provided the audience with her presentation titled “Community-Based Approach to Educational Materials Development.” Haack explained that a community-based approach is “a community that really empowers people to participate” and should encourage increasing access to information and resources; enhancing the capabilities of the members through the exchange of knowledge and experience; and facilitating innovation.

Haack explored some examples of these community-based activities in her presentation. One example is Greener Education Materials for Chemists (GEMs),1 a database of educational materials focused on green chemistry. This Internet-based database holds a searchable collection of green chemistry books, articles, demonstrations, courses, laboratory exercises, and other databases (see Figure 3.1). The GEMS database serves the function of increasing access to information and resources related to green chemistry, enhancing capabilities by providing quality materials, and decreasing the potential barriers to communication.

In addition to the GEMS database, Haack emphasized the importance of incorporating green chemistry through other means. The University of Oregon in collaboration with Worcester State College is in the early stages of developing a high school distance education program. The development comprises several parts: (1) modifying or coordinating existing materials; (2) designing new materials, (e.g. podcasts, games); (3) course design collaborative; and (4) information dissemination channels.

Another example Haack mentioned is the text Chemistry for Changing Times,2 a chemistry textbook for nonchemistry majors. The nonchemistry major student population includes students in education, business, and health fields, such as physical therapy, art, and history. Typically these students are trying to satisfy a science requirement for the university’s core requirements and will not take any additional chemistry. The textbook has very little math and focuses on concepts. The new edition has 10-12 new educational modules that cover green chemistry.

The establishment of the Ambassador Site Project is another example of the University of Oregon’s efforts in green chemistry education. This project grew from University of Oregon’s Green Chemistry and Education Workshop. At the workshop Haack and her colleagues observed that many faculty members had modified laboratories to remove environmental hazards but were not published as green alternatives. Unfortunately, faculty members were not sharing these laboratories with students or their colleagues. This prompted collaboration between Haack, her colleagues at Oregon, as well as others who were successful in incorporating green chemistry into their curriculum, such as Liz Gron and Tom Goodwin (Hendrix College), Margaret Kerr (Worcester State College), and Irvin Levy (Gordon College). Their collaboration resulted in the development of ambassador sites that utilize a community-based approach which,

1

http://greenchem.uoregon.edu.

2

Hill, J. W., and D. K. Kolb. 2003. Chemistry for Changing Times. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Available at http://wps.prenhall. com/esm_hillkolb_chemistry_10.



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3 Tools and Materials In the next portion of the workshop, speakers and panel comprises several parts: (1) modifying or coordinating ex- members focused on effective green chemistry and engineer- isting materials; (2) designing new materials, (e.g. podcasts, ing educational programs, materials, and teaching tools, in- games); (3) course design collaborative; and (4) information cluding computer software. The session started with talks by dissemination channels. four main speakers, followed by four panel speakers. Another example Haack mentioned is the text Chemis- try for Changing Times,2 a chemistry textbook for nonchem- istry majors. The nonchemistry major student population MAIN SPEAKERS includes students in education, business, and health fields, The first speaker, Dr. Julie Haack from the University such as physical therapy, art, and history. Typically these of Oregon, provided the audience with her presentation titled students are trying to satisfy a science requirement for the “Community-Based Approach to Educational Materials De- university’s core requirements and will not take any addi- velopment.” Haack explained that a community-based ap- tional chemistry. The textbook has very little math and fo- proach is “a community that really empowers people to par- cuses on concepts. The new edition has 10-12 new educa- ticipate” and should encourage increasing access to tional modules that cover green chemistry. information and resources; enhancing the capabilities of the The establishment of the Ambassador Site Project is members through the exchange of knowledge and experi- another example of the University of Oregon’s efforts in ence; and facilitating innovation. green chemistry education. This project grew from Univer- Haack explored some examples of these community- sity of Oregon’s Green Chemistry and Education Workshop. based activities in her presentation. One example is Greener At the workshop Haack and her colleagues observed that Education Materials for Chemists (GEMs),1 a database of many faculty members had modified laboratories to remove educational materials focused on green chemistry. This environmental hazards but were not published as green al- Internet-based database holds a searchable collection of ternatives. Unfortunately, faculty members were not sharing green chemistry books, articles, demonstrations, courses, these laboratories with students or their colleagues. This laboratory exercises, and other databases (see Figure 3.1). prompted collaboration between Haack, her colleagues at The GEMS database serves the function of increasing access Oregon, as well as others who were successful in incorporat- to information and resources related to green chemistry, en- ing green chemistry into their curriculum, such as Liz Gron hancing capabilities by providing quality materials, and de- and Tom Goodwin (Hendrix College), Margaret Kerr creasing the potential barriers to communication. (Worcester State College), and Irvin Levy (Gordon College). In addition to the GEMS database, Haack emphasized Their collaboration resulted in the development of ambassa- the importance of incorporating green chemistry through dor sites that utilize a community-based approach which, other means. The University of Oregon in collaboration with Worcester State College is in the early stages of developing a high school distance education program. The development 2Hill, J. W., and D. K. Kolb. 2003. Chemistry for Changing Times. Up- per Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Available at http://wps.prenhall. com/ 1http://greenchem.uoregon.edu. esm_hillkolb_chemistry_10. 8

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9 TOOLS AND MATERIALS FIGURE 3.1. Example Web shot of searching the GEMS website. SOURCE: Haack, J. 2005. A Community-Based Approach to Educational Materials Development. Presentation at the National Academies Chemical Sciences Roundtable Green Chemistry and Engineering Educa- tion Workshop. November 7, 2005. according to Haack, empowers people to participate at dif- analyses at differing scales or levels to yield useful informa- ferent levels to facilitate the incorporation of green chemis- tion using the “box” concept. try materials into the curriculum, increases access to infor- In addition to the “box” concept, Shonnard discussed mation and resources, and enhances the capability of the computer-aided assessment and improvement tools that can group through participation and provides a foundation or be used in green engineering. According to Shonnard, “com- framework for innovation. puter-aided tools can help inform process or product design The educational ambassador sites will create new ma- early on through estimation of chemical process and envi- terials, write grants, offer mentoring and professional devel- ronmental properties, later through process simulation and opment, and distribute materials. environmental fate modeling, and ultimately by using pro- The next speaker in this session, Dr. David Shonnard cess integration and multi-objective optimization.” The tools (Michigan Technological University) began his talk by giv- can be used for a range of scales, including molecular, pro- ing a definition of green engineering as “the design and com- cess, national, or global. Green Engineering incorporates mercialization and use of processes and products that are these tools in a hierarchical design sequence (see Figure 3.3). both feasible and economical, while minimizing risk to the Some of the computer-aided tools that Shonnard high- environment and to human health and also the generation of lighted in his talk included: pollution at the source.” Shonnard discussed using the “box” concept, where inputs and outputs are balanced within the • Tools for early design assessment to predict envi- context of conservation laws to develop governing equations ronmental properties, investigate green chemistry alterna- as a teaching tool (see Figure 3.2). One could complete tives, and design molecules with lower environmental impacts.

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10 EXPLORING OPPORTUNITIES IN GREEN CHEMISTRY A B

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11 TOOLS AND MATERIALS C FIGURE 3.2 (A) Box concept at the macroscale, (B) Box concept: Exchanges within and between facilities, (C) Box concept: Beyond the plant boundary. SOURCE: Shonnard, D. 2005. Tools and Materials for Green Engineering and Green Chemistry Education. Presentation at the National Academies Chemical Sciences Roundtable Green Chemistry and Engineering Education Workshop. November 7, 2005. ➢ EPI Suite looks at physical and chemical prop- • Tools that aid in the estimation of pollutant release erties and environmental fate estimation models developed from processes to the air. ➢ Air CHIEF CD9 for emission factors for ma- by the EPA.3 ➢ The Green Chemistry Expert System (GCES)4 jor equipment plus fugitive sources. ➢ TANKS 4.0—program from EPA10 for stor- can also be used to design green chemistry reactions and reaction conditions. age tanks. ➢ The Program for Assisting the Replacement ➢ WATER8—on Air CHIEF CD11 or EPIWIN of Industrial Solvents (PARIS II)5 software has been created for wastewater treatment. ➢ CHEMDAT8—on Air CHIEF CD for treat- for the purpose of finding replacements for currently used solvents that have similar properties but are less harmful to ment storage and disposal facility (TSDF) processes. the environment. • Tools for environmental impact assessment of pro- Most of these software programs are available free of charge cess designs. or for a very small fee. ➢ Simultaneous Comparison on Environmental Other educational materials Shonnard highlighted were and Non-Environmental Process Criteria (SCENE).6 a book and Web site. His book Green Engineering: Environ- ➢ Waste Reduction Algorithm (WAR).7 mentally Conscious Design of Chemical Processes, which ➢ Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of was developed in collaboration with David Allen, contains Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI).8 an aggregate of green engineering Web resources, software tools, and online databases. The Web site Shonnard de- 3http://www.epa.gov/oppt/exposure/docs/episuite.htm. 4http://www.epa.gov/oppt/greenengineering. 5http://www.epa.gov/nrmrl/std/mtb/paris.htm. 6http://www.aiche.org/sache/. 9http://\t “_parent” www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/airchief.html. 7http://www.epa.gov/oppt/greenengineering/software.html. 10http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/tanks.html. 8http://www.epa.gov/ORD/NRMRL/std/sab/traci/. 11http://\t “_parent” www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/airchief.html.

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12 EXPLORING OPPORTUNITIES IN GREEN CHEMISTRY FIGURE 3.3 Schematic of David Shonnard’s tools for environmentally conscious chemical process design and analysis. SOURCE: Shonnard, D. 2005. Tools and Materials for Green Engineering and Green Chemistry Education. Presentation at the National Academies Chemical Sciences Roundtable Green Chemistry and Engineering Education Workshop. November 7, 2005. scribed was the Green Engineering Website for Educators ganic chemistry with a minimum C grade plus brush-up quiz and Students that was developed by Rowan University and (2) a science library resource workshop and quiz. The through the American Society for Engineering Education course is divided into seven sections: Green Engineering program. The Environmental Protection Agency and National Science Foundation provided funding 1. Chemistry in society gives a historical account of for the site. This site contains a variety of resources: green chemistry by showing the connections between people and engineering Web sites; announcements of green engineering ideas; journal publications, workshops, and presentations; links or 2. Survey of modern concerns in which the students references to related software; and courses or modules in gain an accurate account of current issues in the industry by green engineering for instructors. The undergraduate mod- surveying scholarly literature; ules have been developed to aid instructors to integrate green 3. Dyestuffs; engineering concepts into traditional engineering courses at 4. Green chemistry; all undergraduate levels. 5. Pharmaceutical industry; The next speaker to discuss tools and materials for green 6. Industrial feedstocks; and chemistry and engineering education was Dr. John Andraos 7. Chemistry of everyday experience. from York University. Andraos discussed his chemistry course, Industrial and Applied Green Chemistry, which is The course has many components, such as Chemistry and offered as an advanced course at the third-year level. Society, Development of Industrial Chemistry, and Geneal- Andraos stated, “I am one of the proponents who believe ogy, to connect chemistry to history, world events, and real- that it should be taught a little later so that students have case problems. Students are required to research resources acquired a real mastery of the subject.” He explained that such as journal articles, society news magazines, books, and there are two prerequisites for the class: (1) second year or- patent literature to enhance skills in decision making, inter-

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13 TOOLS AND MATERIALS disciplinary problem solving, quantitative reasoning and must defend three research proposals that must be orthogo- evaluation. nal to their laboratory work. At this point students can opt to Andraos explained that he wants to encourage self-dis- acquire a terminal master’s degree or become doctoral de- covery through this independent learning process. In the gree candidates. If the latter is chosen, candidates immedi- business area, topics such as economic impacts, patents, and ately give a dissertation seminar describing their research to confidentiality agreements are reviewed as further examples the entire university’s research community. As stated by of how chemistry is connected to society. The course also Warner, this path is chosen because too often in chemistry, contains a career development component as well as alumni we wait until the end of a student’s academic career to find speakers. The coursework for the class comprises biweekly out what he or she has been doing for the last three or four quizzes, four problem sets, one written assignment, one oral years in the lab. assignment, and one final exam. The written assignment is a The options for research in the program are one of the rigorous critiquing of a synthesis or manufacturing of target seven areas in the Center for Green Chemistry: product or process according to green criteria written in a journalistic style. The topic is the student’s choice. Andraos 1. Crystal engineering; commented that students come to the class thinking industry 2. Noncovalent derivitization; is the “bad boy” but go away with a more informed picture. 3. Photo polymers; The final main speaker in this session was Dr. John 4. Ambient metal oxide semiconductors; Warner from the University of Massachusetts, Lowell, who 5. Reaction design; is the founder of the “world’s first green chemistry Ph.D. 6. Medicinal chemistry; or program.” In his talk Warner discussed different aspects of 7. Educational research. the Ph.D. program and how his program teaches people how to do green chemistry. Warner recited Russian poetry as the One interesting aspect of the program, Warner noted, is introduction to his talk. After reciting three poems in Rus- the education research requirement for the program. All sian, he asked the question “Can we all be Russian poets Ph.D. students must participate in community outreach at since we have seen three examples?” He used this example the K-12 level a minimum of once per month. The students to demonstrate that examples are useful but do not make us receive no compensation or credit for this community out- experts in a subject, green chemistry in particular. reach, but according to Warner, “It instills in them the sense Warner explained that although he feels compelled to that this is what people should do and when they leave, hope- teach green chemistry, when he was considering how to teach fully, whether they go into industry or academia this model the subject he did not think that integrating green chemistry follows with them and they see this is a requirement in their into existing curricula was the best mode of action. There- lives to be reaching out to the community.” fore, he created a new, independent program in green chem- istry that focuses on research to avoid obstacles in integrat- PANEL SPEAKERS ing green chemistry into existing curricula. His program is not located in the college of sciences, the college of engi- The panel discussion on tools and materials for green neering science, or the college of health and environment. chemistry and education began with Dr. Michael Cann from Each college has representation on the Center for Green the University of Scranton. Cann presented tools and materi- Chemistry board of advisers, but the center and its program als for infusing green chemistry into the undergraduate lec- stand alone. ture curriculum. Cann believes there are three things needed In addition to research, the program Warner described to mainstream green chemistry: (1) insertion of green chem- consists of core and elective courses. The students are re- istry into mainstream chemistry courses; (2) faculty who quired to complete five core chemistry courses: teach these courses to develop modules on green chemistry related to topics already covered in their course; and (3) make 1. Introduction to Green Chemistry; it easy for other faculty to do the same by providing access 2. Mechanistic Toxicology; to materials (e.g., place materials on the Web). 3. Sustainable Materials Design; A starting point for Cann was the development of the book Real World Cases in Green Chemistry12 with coauthor 4. Environmental Law and Policy; and 5. Experimental Conceptualization. Marc Connelly. They designed the book to be used in a vari- ety of ways. It contains descriptions of 10 projects that have With the addition of electives and other required courses, a won or been nominated for Presidential Green Chemistry total of 12 classes are required. Students take five cumula- Challenge awards. The book can also serve as a resource for tive exams throughout the program, which are written by influential leaders in green chemistry from outside the pro- gram, such as Paul Anastas and Berkeley (“Buzz”) Cue. An 12Cann, M. C. and M. E. Connelly. 2000. Real World Cases in Green additional requirement in this program is that all students Chemistry. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society.

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14 EXPLORING OPPORTUNITIES IN GREEN CHEMISTRY anyone wishing to be better informed about specific ways with current processes and some were not. According to that the redesign of chemical products and processes is pre- Beckman, a major deficiency with “both chemistry and venting pollution and solving environmental problems. chemical engineering curricula is that we don’t worry about In his quest for mainstreaming green chemistry, Cann product design very much.” He added that emphasizing prod- identified two of his objectives: to develop modules and to uct design is important in overall design paradigm. Issues make green chemistry accessible to other faculty. Cann and with the deficit in product design include: his colleagues developed Greening Across the Chemistry Curriculum13 to provide “modules in green chemistry to in- • “The majority of students trained in chemistry and sert into existing courses across the college chemistry cur- chemical engineering who enter industry will work in prod- riculum.”14 The modules expose students to real-world uct-related functions, yet few receive formal training in prod- state-of-the-art examples of green chemistry as part of the uct design and development.” mainstream college curriculum. There is also an interest to • “It is not clear to many of our students that they will put green chemistry into the business side of courses. Web- one day have customers, that this is a good thing, and that based modules have also been developed for the following perhaps one should interact with the customers.” existing chemistry courses: general, organic, inorganic, • “In academia, all of our ‘products’ are single com- physical, environmental, industrial, and polymer chemistry, ponent and 99 percent plus pure.” as well as toxicology and biochemistry. Each of the Web- • “If we are not currently teaching product design, based modules has three parts: how then do we add sustainability as a constraint?” 1. “The module”: A green chemistry topic is discussed Beckman emphasized that the convergence of chemis- in class, and then the instructor directs the students to visit try and engineering is needed to accomplish real green de- the Web page to read and study the material. sign. Beckman cited an article from the Journal of Business Research16 on how to achieve sustainable product design. 2. “Notes to Instructors”: Suggestions are provided to aid instructors in determining where a module could be used The article features three approaches: in a particular course and other courses. 3. “PowerPoint Presentation”: Instructor can use 1. Eco-redesign (E-) = short term, modify current de- PowerPoint presentations to present the material, and stu- sign, reduce waste, preserve business as usual—the “low dents can use them as notes. hanging fruit”; 2. Eco-innovation (E+) = longer term, reinvent ways The project had funding from the Camille and Henry Dreyfus and means to provide benefits to customers; and Foundation Special Grant Program in the Chemical Sciences, 3. Sustainable technology innovations (E++) = emerg- the ACS/EPA Green Chemistry Educational Materials De- ing or unproven technology to provide through inherently velopment Project, and the University of Scranton. different mechanisms; radical technology change. Lastly, Cann featured Colin Baird’s Environmental Chemistry15 as an example of a text that has green chemistry After deciding on an approach to teaching product design, integrated throughout every chapter. In addition, the preface metrics must be used to gauge progress. is an introduction to green chemistry, atom economy, and In closing, Beckman explained what he thinks is needed the synthesis of ibuprofen. to teach a chemical product design course: The course should The next panelist, Dr. Eric Beckman from the Univer- be team taught and available to multiple disciplines, should sity of Pittsburgh, focused on chemical engineering and use sustainability as a constraint, should use validation tools, sustainability in his presentation. Beckman began by dis- and should consider the voice of the customer as well as cussing the chemical engineering community’s reluctance to adequate product performance and price. incorporate green chemistry into their curriculum. He stated The next panelist was Dr. Kathryn Parent, from the that most chemical engineers think that “basic fundamental Green Chemistry Institute (GCI), who discussed American chemical engineering is green engineering, end of story, on Chemical Society (ACS) resources available for green chem- to the next thing.” To survey the reality of chemical engi- istry education. Parent explained that GCI’s mission is neering for himself, Beckman analyzed each principle of “advancing the implementation of green chemistry and engi- green engineering. He found some items were consistent neering principles into all aspects of the chemical enter- prise,” including education. In answering that charge, GCI and ACS have developed an aggregate of tools, materials, 13http://academic.scranton.edu/faculty/CANNM1/dreyfusmodules.html. 14http://academic.scranton.edu/faculty/CANNM1/dreyfusmodules.html. 15Baird, C., and M. Cann. 2004. Environmental Chemistry, 3rd ed. New 16Fuller, D., and J. Ottman. 2004. Moderating unintended pollution: The York, NY:WH Freeman. Available at http://bcs.whfreeman.com/ role of sustainable product design. Journal of Business Research. 57(11): envchem3e/. 1231-1238.

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15 TOOLS AND MATERIALS and programs geared toward greening chemistry education. • Web teams—Major environmental drivers; GCI is attempting to make these changes through the devel- • Global sustainability issues—National Academy of opment of new courses or the incorporation of content into Sciences; existing courses, research, and extracurricular activities, such • Course work—Green Engineering: Environmen- as student affiliates, conferences, workshops, symposiums, tally Conscious Design of Chemical Processes by David and ACS summer schools. Shonnard and David Allen; According to Parent, “In 2001 there were no educational • EPA Web sites; materials on green chemistry available to educators beyond • Individual projects; technical reference books. By 2005 GCI in partnership with • Peer review; and ACS Education had produced six green chemistry publications • Unintended consequences—Green court. for chemical educators. Over 1,000 copies per year are distrib- uted to customers. GCI receives requests for green chemistry Required reading for this course includes the Green Engi- educational materials from faculty around the world.” Parent neering Tutorial: Environmentally Conscious Design of displayed a list of available education materials: Chemical Processes by Allen and Shonnard and Bio-Based Polymers and Composites by Wool. • Chemistry in the Community—A high school text- book; BREAKOUT SESSIONS • Introduction to Green Chemistry—A high school unit text; On the second day of the workshop, breakout sessions • Chemistry in Context—An undergraduate textbook; allowed participants to delve deeper into the issues surround- • Real-World Cases in Green Chemistry—An under- ing green chemistry and engineering. Workshop participants graduate seminar text; were assigned to breakout groups, and the results of those • Green Chemistry: Innovations for a Cleaner breakout sessions that corresponded with the tools and mate- World—A companion video to Real-World Cases in Green rials for green chemistry and engineering education are sum- Chemistry; marized below. • Greener Approaches to Undergraduate Laboratory Experiments—An undergraduate laboratory experiment What Materials, Programs, and Tools Are Needed? manual; • Green Chemistry: Meeting Global Challenges—A The participants in this breakout group believed that DVD of conference presentations; any tools, materials, or programs for green chemistry and • Going Green: Integrating Green Chemistry into the engineering would be most beneficial if they were targeted Curriculum—A how-to resource for faculty; and at the undergraduate level and possibly the industrial level. • Online resources The participants identified incorporating green chemistry ➢ ACS Green Chemistry Institute, http:// into mainstream textbooks as one way to overcome barriers www.greenchemistryinstitute.org associated with teaching green chemistry and engineering ➢ ACS Education Division, http://www. to chemistry and chemical engineering majors, as well as chemistry.org/education/greenchem other science, engineering, and nonscience majors. The par- ➢ Annotated bibliography, http://chemistry.org/ ticipants thought this technique was a reasonable way to greenchem/bibliography.html engage students and raise awareness about green chemistry and engineering. In addition, a global motivation document In addition to the resources listed above, ACS continues to could be used to attract new audiences by presenting an develop new resources such as new textbooks infused with overarching view of the main issues in green chemistry and green chemistry; business school case studies being conducted engineering. This technique will be beneficial only if the to emphasize the connection between green chemistry and book is not ignored. economics; and other user driven tools. Parent concluded that Other tools, materials, or programs needed to comple- students are “our greatest resource in green chemistry educa- ment current green chemistry and engineering educational tion and developing them should be our key goal.” resources include: Dr. Richard Wool from the University of Delaware gave the last presentation of the panel and of the first day of the • Introduction or capstone to design course for engi- workshop. Wool discussed his senior undergraduate course neers and scientists; “Green Engineering Out of This World.” The class typically • Integrated laboratory and lecture courses; consists of about 30 students that are split into eight to ten • Seminar courses on modern topics in green chemistry; Web teams. The students learn the basic tools of green engi- • Comprehensive centralized Web-based resources; neering systems and how to do the adequate analyses using and sustainability issues as the subjects. The class structure is: • Assessment tools for undergraduates.

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16 EXPLORING OPPORTUNITIES IN GREEN CHEMISTRY Examples of recent efforts that provide a sufficient starting In interdisciplinary endeavors, department chairs have a point for green chemistry are the ACS efforts that Parent number of administrative barriers that cause them to be re- presented and the University of Oregon’s Greener Education luctant to engage in partnerships: (1) how to distribute ex- Materials for Chemists (GEMs) that Haack presented. Man- penses for necessary materials across departments; (2) how agement, coordination, and funding of efforts are required to allocate the time commitment of faculty across depart- for future adequate expansion. One note of caution is that ments; (3) intellectual property issues; and (4) the burden of not all tools can be adapted for the targeted educational pur- adding electives in addition to core coursework. To over- poses. An example of this is Building for Environmental and come barriers in interdisciplinary endeavors, department Economic Sustainability (BEES), software developed by the must see the value in collaboration. A reward system to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) di- motivate these partnerships may encourage interdisciplinary rected to aid in selecting cost-effective, environmentally collaboration and encourage departments to see the value in friendly building products using green principles. Unfortu- collaboration outside their departments, but other value nately, this tool is applicable only to construction. propositions must also be identified. Barriers to using current green chemistry and engineer- The presence of cultural barriers that impact interdisci- ing materials were also identified. Chemical engineering has plinary approaches was also discussed. The language of defined a set of core principles of which green engineering is chemistry, corporate influence on chemistry and chemical considered to be outside the scope of these core concepts. engineering, and differences in processes and approaches in Professors are expected to achieve higher learning curves chemistry versus chemical engineering are three of the cul- for students and have to factor in the time constraints of add- tural barriers. Chemistry has a very unique language that ing lessons to an already full course curriculum. Untested other disciplines do not always easily comprehend. A con- case studies and examples of green chemistry and engineer- centrated effort to speak one another’s languages could di- ing could have unintended consequences. Any unintended minish the language barrier. The different approaches and consequences related to green chemistry and engineering processes in chemistry versus chemical engineering is ap- could dampen credibility, foster distrust of green chemistry parent since chemistry focuses on pure science and chemical and engineering, or discourage participation and support of engineering focuses on applied science. The focus on inno- green chemistry and engineering among professionals and vation in chemical engineering may allow for an easier inte- students. gration of green principles. In general, the majority of the group participants agreed Interdisciplinary approaches tend to be viewed differ- that infusing green chemistry and engineering into textbooks ently by industry and academia. A high interest in interdisci- and improvement of textbooks by professional societies are plinary collaboration has been shown in industry. The par- ways of enhancing curricula. They also agreed that although ticipants believe that students may like working in teams for it may not seem difficult to integrate green chemistry and research purposes but dislike working in teams on graded engineering into textbooks, the efforts will not be successful classroom projects. without the support of textbook authors and a seal of ap- At the end of this breakout the participants agreed on proval from professional societies. the following as possible actions to address the interdiscipli- nary issues: What Is Needed to Achieve Interdisciplinary Approaches? • Develop a framework for funding; In this breakout session the group addressed issues re- • Increase awareness and information sharing be- garding interdisciplinary educational approaches. Some bar- tween disciplines; riers to interdisciplinary collaboration are: • Develop a reward system to recognize good prac- tices; and • Internal issues within institutions or organizations; • Develop leadership from key faculty across disci- • External support mechanisms; and plines. • Recognition of expertise.